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Monday, May 31, 2010

[Banks papers , Gov jobs , Gk, English ,Reasoning ,Math] Resoning

1. What should come in the place of "?" in the following series?
5, 13, 17, 25, 29, ?, 41
(A) 36
(B) 38
(C) 35
(D) 37
Ans (D)

2. What should come in the place of "?" in the following series?
9, 16, ?, 36, 49
(A) 22
(B) 20
(C) 25
(D) 27
Ans (C)

3. Complete the series:
5, 13, 45, 189, 957, ____ ?
(A) 5742
(B) 4849
(C) 4797
(D) 5757
Ans (D)

4. Complete the series:
21, 39, 26, 44, 31, 49, _____?
(A) 54
(B) 36
(C) 44
(D) 53
Ans (B)

5. Complete the series:
254, 291, 322, 363, 398, ____?
(A) 443
(B) 421
(C) 462
(D) 439
Ans (A)

6. Complete the series:
16, 28, 52, 100, 196, ______ ?
(A) 342
(B) 392
(C) 388
(D) 362
Ans (C)

7. Complete the series:
8, 25, 51, 88, 138 ______?
(A) 203
(B) 196
(C) 213
(D) 223
Ans (A)

8. Complete the series:
536, 524, 500, 464, ____, 356
(A) 512
(B) 416
(C) 368
(D) 542
Ans (C)

9. What should come in the place of "?" in the following series?
___? , 109, 53, 25, 11, 4
(A) 445
(B) 214
(C) 221
(D) 196
Ans (C)

10. What should come in the place of "?" in the following series?
3, 10, 21, 64, ? , 388, 777
(A) 214
(B) 156
(C) 291
(D) 129
Ans (D) 

Sunday, May 16, 2010

Cricket ODI Records Celebrating Sachin's 200 Runs

We have observed that in many recent exams, there were questions from cricket. Most of the questions revolved around records, personal achievement of cricket players, famous milestones etc.
We would advise all of you to keep an eye on the current matches being played and note down the records created and milestones achieved by famous players.
Here is a list of some important records.
And, yes, this post has been inspired by Sachin's Double Century in ODI. We all love Sachin! Don't we?

Sachin Tendulkar's Records (as on Feb 24, 2010)

Highest ODI Runs: 17598
Highest Individual Score: 200*
Highest 100s: 46
Highest 50s: 93
Highest partnership: 338 (with Rahul Dravid)

ODI Records (as on Feb 24, 2010):

1. Highest individual score

Rank Runs Player Match Venue Season
1 200* India Sachin Tendulkar India v South Africa Gwalior 2010
2 194* Zimbabwe Charles Coventry Zimbabwe v Bangladesh Bulawayo 2009
3 194 Pakistan Saeed Anwar Pakistan v India Chennai 1997
4 189* West Indies Cricket Board Vivian Richards West Indies v England Manchester 1984

2. Highest innings Totals (>400 Runs)

Rank Score Teams Venue Season
1 443-9 (50 overs) Sri Lanka v Netherlands Amstelveen 2006
2 438-9 (49.5 overs) South Africa v Australia Johannesburg 2005-06
3 434-4 (50 overs) Australia v South Africa Johannesburg 2005-06
4 418-5 (50 overs) South Africa v Zimbabwe Potchefstroom 2005
5 414-7 (50 overs) India v Sri Lanka Rajkot 2009
6 413-5 (50 overs) India v Bermuda Port of Spain 2007
7 411-8 (50 overs) Sri Lanka v India Rajkot 2009
8 402-2 (50 overs) New Zealand v Ireland Aberdeen 2008
9 401-3 (50 overs) India v South Africa Gwalior 2010

3. Lowest innings totals

Rank Score Teams Venue Season
1 35 (18 overs) Zimbabwe v Sri Lanka Zimbabwe 2004
2 36 (18.4 overs) Canada v Sri Lanka Sri Lanka 1975
3 38 (15.4 overs) Zimbabwe v Sri Lanka Sri Lanka 2001
4 43 (19.5 overs) Pakistan v West Indies Australia 1993
5 44 (24.5 overs) Zimbabwe v Bangladesh Bangladesh 2009

4.Most Centuries in ODIs

Rank Centuries Innings Player Period
1 46 431 Sachin Tendulkar from 1989 to -
2 29 340 Ricky Ponting from 1995 to -
3 28 444 Sanath Jayasuriya from 1989 to -
4 22 311 Sourav Ganguly from 1992 to 2008
5 21 246 Herschelle Gibbs from 1996 to -

5. Highest partnerships

Rank Runs Players Opposition Venue Season
1 338 (2nd wicket) Sachin Tendulkar & Rahul Dravid v New Zealand Hyderabad 1999
2 318 (2nd wicket) Rahul Dravid & Sourav Ganguly v Sri Lanka Tonton 1999
3 274 (1st wicket) James Marshall & Brendon McCullum v India Aberdeen 2008

Indian Banking Sector 2010 : Opportunities and Challenges

Indian Banking Sector 2010 : Opportunities and Challenges
The current economic situation provides a lot of opportunities as well as challenges to the existing banks. It is up to the banks to leverage the opportunities to meet the challenges to the best of their abilities.
The past year witnessed a lot of turmoil in the Indian banking industry owing to the global financial crisis. The Reserve Bank of India (RBI), Ministry of Finance and other regulatory authorities have made several notable efforts to improve regulation in the sector. Many big banks operating in the market have made use of the changed regulations (viz., change in CRR and interest rate) to provide better options to potential and new customers. Adoption of new practices to cater to the demanding economy situation has enabled the banks to meet the changing customer requirements. Compared to other regional banks, over the last few years, Indian banks have performed favorably on growth, asset quality and profitability. The banking index has grown at a compounded annual rate of over 51% from April 2001 compared to the market index for the same period, which registered a growth rate of 27%.
The crisis that hit the financial services industry initially in the US and almost immediately in the entire world has moved our focus towards critical systemic issues—not only in the US banking business but also in India. Globally, these systemic issues are being tackled at the legislative and regulatory levels; in India, the solution to the systemic issues will require significant inputs and regulatory, industry and infrastructural interventions. To ensure survival, banks tried to quickly assess their liquidity reserves and capital position to check if they had any exposure to the failing global entities. Additionally, this check also meant a clear pulling down of new/additional credit outflow, unless and until their positions were clear. Over a short span of time, the situation resulted in banks totally stopping the outflow of new credit.
According to Indian Banks Association Data, retail credit growth dropped drastically from 30% in 2007 to 10% in 2008, owing to increased pressure on existing loan portfolios and the fear of anticipated mass job losses which would result in high NPAs. Analysts and credit rating agencies in their reports showed marginal to moderate increases in NPLs in assets such as two-wheelers, commercial vehicles and unsecured loans. Growth in mortgages, which forms 50% of banks' retail portfolio, was also hit due to upward movement in interest rates, restriction on collection practices and soaring real estate prices.
Indian banks had to clean up their systems and practices to ensure stability in a recovering economy. Four challenges must be addressed before success can be achieved.
The market is witnessing haphazard growth, driven by new products and services, which include credit cards, consumer finance and wealth management on the retail side, and fee-based income and investment banking on the wholesale banking side. Continuous growth in these new products and services requires new skills in sales and marketing, credit, operations and, above all, a potential customer base to provide these offerings.
There will be no windfall treasury gains, which banks used to enjoy as a result of the decade-long secular decline in interest rates provided. This will expose the weaker banks and put them in trouble to a large extent.
Growing interest in India will encourage foreign banks to set shop in India, thereby intensifying the competition for domestic and other existing players.
As India is experiencing demographic shifts resulting from changes in age profile and household income, now consumers will demand improved institutional capabilities and enhanced service levels from banks.
As has been mentioned earlier, in India, regulators need to play a major role in revolutionalizing and bringing about changes in the economy. Of late, it has been realized that there is a need to create a market-driven banking sector, with ample stress on social development. This requires dedicated efforts by the regulators in six important areas, which are as follows:
Focus strongly on `social development' by shifting from universal directed norms to an explicit incentive-driven system by introducing credit guarantees and market subsidies to encourage leading public sector, private and foreign players to leverage technology to innovate and profitably provide banking services to lower income and rural markets, thereby improving financial inclusion in the economy.
Like the biggest financial markets of the world, create a super regulator rather than having separate regulators for each and every participant in the financial services industry.
Focus on corporate governance and ensure that the same is improved by primarily focusing on board independence and accountability.
Speed up the process of creation of world-class supporting infrastructure (e.g., payments, Asset Reconstruction Companies (ARCs), credit bureaus, and back-office utilities) to enable the banking sector focus on core activities.
Undertake labor reforms, focusing on enhancing human capital, to help the public sector and old private banks compete with the newly established and much more efficient private banks and foreign banks entering the country.
Not only the regulators need to gear up, but even the banks need to pull up their socks and bring about some changes to support the reforms which the regulators aim to bring in:
Public sector banks need to improve certain areas of their work performance, viz., sales and marketing, service operations, risk management and the overall organizational performance ethic. Last but not the least is to enhance the human capital, which will be the single biggest challenge and definitely the most time-consuming one also.
What is true for public sector banks is also true for old private sector banks, as they have to also strengthen their basic skills. Additionally, they have to ensure their proactive participation in the Indian banking sector. This is of utmost importance to them, because the same will keep them up-to-date in this fiercely competitive market.
New private banks can achieve an altogether new height in their growth in the Indian banking sector by continuing to engineer new and differentiated business models to profitably, efficiently and effectively service segments like the rural/low income and affluent/HNI segments, and by keeping an eye open for the acquisition of small banks to grow and reach the next level of performance in their service platforms. Attracting, developing and retaining management capacity would be another critical factor for achieving this and would be the biggest challenge that these banks will have to face.
Foreign banks entering India will have to be innovative in their approaches to win the largest customer base and share of wallet and above all, to build a value-creating customer franchise in advance of regulations potentially opening up post 2009. At the same time, they need to be an active player in the game for potential acquisition opportunities, as and when they emerge, to ensure growth and establishment in India. They need to sustain and maintain a long-term value-creation mindset, which will not be an easy task by any means.
Thus, banking in India involves the cooperation and participation of many stakeholders for the desired changes to be made in the existing system. Last year, during the economic slowdown, when the banking system globally went for a toss, the Indian banking industry emerged as a strong performer owing to the coordinated efforts of policy makers and the banks in bringing these policies to action for the best of the economy.
The Indian banking industry gathered the strength to sustain during such times through its huge deposit base, which is consistently on a growth path, central bank's proactive measures to steadily improve banks' balance sheet strength, and a demand in the economy for physical asset creation. These factors enabled the Indian banking sector to become stronger on the capitalization front and also ensure lower level NPAs and better spreads in the past one-and-a-half decade.
The strength provided through timely measures has helped the industry and the economy in many ways. Last year, the economy witnessed perhaps the biggest and positive impact of higher credit growth in infrastructure- related companies—power, telecom and others. However, it was partially compensated by the reduction in other funding sources such as private equity and foreign institutional investors.
The alarm will start ringing if the regulator decides to continue with the stimulus package for long. With dried-up liquidity and no borrowers (given the low credit growth), the banking system will continue to invest excessively in government securities, leading to fiscal deficit eventually.
However, an increase in domestic liquidity has had a cascading effect on the asset price inflation. According to a report by Tata Securities, the YTD growth in deposits is 9%, while the credit growth is only 5.4%, resulting in the banks' looking for other investment opportunities. The high liquidity with banks forced them to invest in the liquid funds of mutual funds, which in turn invested in commercial papers of corporates at a lower coupon— corporates would have otherwise borrowed at a higher cost from the banks for their working capital requirements.
The second half of the year, which is typically the time for maximum activity in the economy, usually witnesses a higher demand for bank credit, compared to the first six months of the financial year. The three broad segments of bank credit are: Capex and Infrastructure Credit; Working Capital Loans; and Consumer Loans.
It is expected that growth would be highest in the case of infrastructure credit and consumer loans. Additionally, it is also expected that the demand for working capital loans is likely to be low, as commodity prices (crude oil and metals) continue to be low, and thus companies will have to work with low working capital requirements on a yearly basis.
Infrastructure is expected to catalyze credit growth in the Indian economy. According to the allocations made by the authorities concerned, the planned outlay on infrastructure under the 11th Five Year Plan under the projected investment in infrastructure should be around Rs 4,500 bn per annum for the next three years. According to a report from Tata Securities, infrastructure as a percentage of total bank credit exists at 10.2% currently, and it is projected to grow at more than 40% y-o-y in the next three years.
Consumer demand has been very resilient. There has also been a rise in the purchasing power in smaller cities and rural areas, along with job stability in large cities and Pay Commission benefits. Research by Tata Securities suggests that secured retail loans in the mortgage and vehicle financing segments are seeing good demand and will drive the overall bank credit growth. The research also states that in the absence of a pickup in corporate working capital loans, banks are eager to grow the secured consumer loans portfolio. It is expected that a price correction in the real estate market and gentle interest rates are factors which will promote growth in loan portfolios.
The downturn which the economy witnessed has discouraged the banks from having any exposure to unsecured consumer credit, and a revival in this segment is not expected to happen soon. According to a research report from Tata Securities, retail loans showed a CAGR of 22% during FY05-FY09. Within the retail segment, housing loans grew by 20% CAGR during the same period and consisted ~10% of the total bank credit. Thus, the banks, which had a big challenge on the unsecured loan front, had at the same time a bigger opportunity in the mortgage-backed security portfolio.
Abundant liquidity in the banking system during FY10 has been ensured through secular growth in deposits, low credit demand and prudent borrowing schedule issued by the government to maintain a balanced growth. According to a research report, despite the huge borrowings of Rs 4,510 bn by the government in FY10, the money held in reverse repo by banks remained considerably high. This will provide an opportunity to the banks to utilize the money in the most efficient and effective way to the benefit of both the customers and the economy as a whole, comprising various stakeholders.
Having talked about comfortable liquidity and the much-wanted stability in the banking system, one can expect that bond yields will remain in a higher range and would not fall significantly. Other reasons which are likely to support this fact includes:
Lower than expected government borrowings
Reduced global risk premium
Higher credit growth
This brings another opportunity for the
banks to earn higher income.
Besides the favorable condition for liquidity and high bond yield, it is expected that the Net Interest Margin (NIM) will not expand much. The banks need to have higher incremental CD ratio, improvement in spreads and stable yield on investments to improve NIMs. Banks are expected to have a low cost of deposits owing to a stable interest rate scenario and ample liquidity in the system.
Another important area which requires critical attention is fee income. In the past few years, fee income has been the major contributor of revenue for private sector banks. Private sector banks have leveraged those areas to achieve the above, which public sector banks have not been able to, viz., transaction- related services and third party products sales, among others, to increase this non-fund based income.
Thus, we can very well say that the current situation has provided a lot of opportunities and challenges to the existing banks. Now, it is up to the banks as to how well they leverage the opportunities to meet the challenges to the best of their capacities.



In the beginning of the first century A.D. a Hindu community existed in Funan. The oldest Hindu kingdom established in the lower valley of the Mekong, the area now included in the Indo-China peninsula was known as the funan with its capital at Vyadhapura, probably near Ba Phnom. According to the tradition recorded in inscriptions, it was founded in the 1st century B.C. by a Brahamana and Kaundinya from India who defeated and married the Naga prnices soma of that place. The second Kaundinya - again a Brahmana from India was elected king by the people, thus marking the next stage of Indian colonisation, Hinduism too deep root in that country, and the rulers bore Indian names and followed Indian religion. The brahminical hierarchy was a notable feature in the social order.
Chinese records mentions the year as 191 A.D. when Kaundinya, a Brahmin, "planted his javelin and married a local naked princes". This was confirmed by the inscriptions relating to King Srimara of the third century A.D. History of Thais also confirms this evidence.
One of the kings, Ashvanarman performed otrthodox Aryan sacrifices. For certain, another Kaundinya who ruled over Funan in the fourth century A.D. appears to have reorganized the state and society. The successor of Kaundinya II, Gu navarman, built temples in honour of Vishnu. In the fifth century A.D. there was a war between funan and the newly emerging champa. At this time Jayavarma of Funan sent an emissary to China seeking its help.
This kingdom established by Kaundinya flourished for a few centuries. Chinese annals refer to some of the vasslas of Funan in the seventh century A.D.
Funan lost its importance and was merged in the famous kingdom of Kambuja (Cambodia) named after Kambu-Svayambhuva. By abo to the 6th century A.D, King Bhavavarman founded a new royal family. Consolidating his hold over kingdom of Kambuja and Funan. His successors ruled for a very long time. The later story is that of the empire of Kambuja extending over a period of more than five centuries.
Three important kingdosm existed at the opening of the sixth century - Kambuja (Cambodia), Champa (Thailand) and Srivijaya, a great maritime empire which included the Malaya peninsula and Simatra.


Kambuja began as a vassal state of Funan but by the middle of the sixth century ir became an independent State of Funan. The founder was Stiravarman. The early inscriptions are in classical Sanskrit, Full of references to ancient India. The kings were Hindus, mainly Saivite. More interesting is the fact that the prasati of Bhavaarman was written in the Kavya style closely imitating the Rabhuvansa of Kalidasa.
Buddhism appeared ni Kambuja by the middle of the seventh century, and two religions, Hinduism and Buddhism, co-existed as in India.
From the homeland it was the Pallava influence that dominated. It was the Pallava doctrine of Saivism that the official cult of Kambuja also. Kambuja's architecture bears the influence of the Pallava tradition.


Champa or Thailand was also an anceitn kingdom. It too broke away from Funan. Chmapa covered Vietna, Laos and Cambodia at one time.
Founded by the turn of the first century A.d. with its capital at Indrapura, Its nucleus was modern Thailand. Probably might have been the first historical king, if not the founder of the Hindu dynasty. The first known-important king was Rudravarman. One king Indravarman III mastered the six systems of Hindu Philosophy, the Buddhist philosophy system, the grammer of Panini, and the sacred texts of the saivitis. The Vedas and the Dramasastras were studied and one king Sri Jaya Idnravarma VII had mastery of the Dharmasastras. Even the Ramayana and the Mahabharata were videly known. The architecture of Champa was of the southern type. Champa disappeared in the 14th century from History after many centuries of fight with the kingdom of Annam which was the advanced post of Chiense culture.


Probably, the sailendras were merged with the Srivijaya kingdom of Sumatra in the fourth century A.D. By the end of the eighth century, the empire spread to Malaya peninsula, One of the kings sent an expedition to Java. I-Tsing visited one king, Sri Jayanasa. Inscriptions talek of Sailendra rule over Sumatra, java and the Malay peninsula by theend of the thirteenth century A.D. As a naval power the Sailendras continued till the 12th century.
The third kingdom of Srivijaya had the glory of guarding the sea routes. The kingdom was first established in Sumatra. Soon the king conquered the other island groups and established their hegemony over the Malaca straits by the beginning of the seventh century. In the eighth century they extended their power to the Malay peninsula. "Thus withone foot on the continent and the other on the great island of Sumatra they bestrode the straits and retained the mastery of both seas for over 500 years."
It was this authority of Srivijaya kingdom that was challenged by the Chols in the eleventh century. It was Rajendra Chola who began the 100 years war with the Sailendras. At the end of the war the Sailednras remained masters of the sea. Thus for full 700 years they did had held sovereignty over the seas surrounding the islands and upheld Indian culture in the archipelago.
They maintained friendly relations with the Palas of Bengal. Balaputradeva of the Sailendras built a monastery at Nalanda. Another ruler built a monastery at Nagapatnam.
The Sailendras were Mahayana Buddhist. Sumatra and Java attracted foreign scholars. Atisadipankara of the Vikramsila university styed for ten years in Sumatra. Their greatest stupa is the Buddha temple at Baraboudour largest in the world - 2000 relief scultupres on the life of the Buddha - built in the from of terraces - the top-most terrace crowned with a bell-shaped stupa.
Arab travelers by compliments to the wealth and grandeur of the empire in the 8th century. But Camobida as Java broke away in the 9th century.


The Indian, immigrants in South-East Asia, while setting up their kingdoms, tried to build a social structure on the orthodox Indian model with the traditional four castes (caturvarna) and the supremacy of the brahmins and the ksatriyas. The distinction between brahmins and the Kastriyas was more apparent than real. Intermarriage between the two was not unknown. But the caste system in these regioins was not as rigid as in India. The aristocracy and the common people had a sharp line of distinction, specially noticed in their dress, which was scanty in the case of ordinary people but gorgeous and ornamented for the aristocrats. Caste did not interfere in the Choice of the avocation. A Kambuja record refers to the members of a Brahmin family being elephant drivers. Artisans and priests.
The Indian dhoti wsa very commonly used. It is mentioned by Chinese historians. A sculpture at Bayon depicts the king dressed in dhoti with a hara - jeweled gold garland - round his neck. The history of the Sui Dynasti mentions that the kings was dressed in purple silk clothes which were embroidered. Inscriptios and sculptures bring out the use of Indian ornaments.
The food habit of the people was the same, tandula (rice) was the staple food with pulses like tila and mudga. Likewise gharta, dadhi and guda (ghee, curd anomolasses) are mentioned in inscription s.


It is astonishing that the greatest Buddhist temple is found not in India but in Baraboudur in Indonasia. Considered to be the largest Buddhist temple in the whoel world, It was constructed in the eighth century A.D. and 436 images of Buddha were engraved onit. The temple of Angkorvat in Kampuchea to medieval times of Baraboudur. Although this temple belongs to medieval times in can be compared to the best artistic achievements of the Egyptians and Greeks. The stories of the Ramayana and Mahabharata are written in relief on the walls of the temple. The story of the Ramayana is so popular in Indonasia that many folk plays are performed on its basis. The Indonesian language called BHASHA INDONESIA contains numerous Sanskrit words. In respect of sculptures the head of the Buddha from Thailand, the head from Kambuja and the Magnificent bronze images from Java are regarded as the best examples of the blending of Indian art with local art traditions of South-East Asia. Similarly beautifull examples of painting comparable to those of Ajanta have been found not only in Sri Lanka but in the Tun Huang Caves on the Chinese border. It was a two-way traffic. Indians acquired the craft of minting gold coins from the greeks and Romans. They larnt theart of growing silk from Cinha. That of growing betel leaves from Indonasia, and several other products from the neighbouring countries. Similarly the method of growing cotton spread from India to China and central Asia. However, Indian contribution seems to be more important in art, religion and language.



1. AIHOLE near Badami with rock cut and structural temples of Western Chalukya period, is favous for the temples of Vishnu, Ladkhan and Durga. It furnish examples of a well developed Deccan style of architecture. The other three styles of ancient India being Nagar Dravidian and Vesara. It is also famous for its inscription or Prasasti composed by Ravikirti, the court poet of Pulkesin II. This prasasti mentions the defeat of Harsha by the Chalukya king, Pulkesin II, a r rare event of a Northern emperor or ruler being defeated by a ruler south of Narmada.
2. ACHICHHATRA identified with modern Ramnagar in Bareily district of U.P. was the capital of North Panchala in the first half of first millennium B.C. Exacavation grove that it had moats and ramparts around it, it has revealed terracottas of the Kushan period, and also remarkable siries of coins of second century A.D. Its importance lies in the fact that it was on the important ancient Indian northern trade route linking Taxila and Inidraprastha with Kanyakubaj and Sravasti, Rajgriha and Pataliputra indicating that trae could be one of the reasons for its prominence.
3. AJANTA near Aurangabad (Maharashtra), is famous for wonderful Buddist caves, and also paintings probably executed only b the Buddhist monks. Paintings of exceptional skill belong to the period between 2nd century B.C. and 7th Century A.D. One of the cave well depicts the reception of a Persian mission in the Chalukya court of Pulkasin II indicating cultural and commercial contacts with the Persian empire.
4. ANUPA in Narmada valley mentioned in the Nasik inscription (dated 115 A.D.) of Gautami Balasri, mother of the Satvahana ruler Sri Satakarni (Circa 72-95 A.D.) was conqured bythe latter from the sakas, and was a bone of contention for long between the Sakas and the Satvahanas. The sakas were responsible for driving the Satavahanas. Into the south -eastern and western direction. In other words, Anupa signifies the earlier homeland of the Satvahanas.
5. APARNTAKA (Aparanta), identified withk Konkan, i.e. North western region of the Deccan, was a bone of contention between the sakas and the Satavahanas and is mentioned in Nasik Inscription (dated circle 155 A.D.) of Gautami Balasri. Gautamiputa stakarni conquered it from theSakas. According to the Mahavamsa, the third Buddhist council deputed Great elder Dharamarakshita to do missionary work in Aparantaka region. Literacy evience locates the Abhiras in this region, who probably were responsible for identifying Lord Krishna as the diety of cowherd and milk-maids.
In matters relating to trade and commerce it was famous for the production of cotton textiles in ancient times and ated, as the hinterland for the ancient ports of Bharukachechha and Sopara.
6. ARIKAMEDU near Pondicherry, known to the periplus as podoka, wa port of call in Sangam Times (200 B.C.) on the route of Malaya and china. Recent excavation during which a veryrich treasure of Roman beads, glass and coins, and of Roman and south Indian Pottery were found have proved that it was once a prosperous settlement of Western trading people, including the Romans.
The favourable balance of Payments position ejoyed by India in its trade with Rome is amply revealed by the rich haul of Roman gold coins.
7. AYODHYA also known as A-yu-te or Abhur of Saketa on the river Sarya (Modern Ghaghra) in Faizabad district of U.P. was the earliest capital of the Kosala Janapade and was the seat of the epic hero, Rama. It is also known for its short Sanskrit inscription of king Dhandeva of Kosal (belonging probably to the first century B.C.) which refers to the conducting of two Asvamedha sacrifices by king Pushyamitra. From the economic view-point it was located on the important trade of Tamralipti-Rajagriha-Sravasti which passed via Ayodhya.
8. AMRAVATI near modern Vijayawada (Andhra Pradesh), is famous for its stupa and as an art center flourishing under the Satavahanas and the pallavas. Second century works of art khow mastery of stone sculpture. Amravati bas-reliefs have the representation of ancient Indian vehicles - the boat or the ship or the cart, and of a foreign mission (like the Ajanta cave paintings) of marchants being received by a king. In ancient times is was an important center of trade, and ships from here sailed to Burma and Indonesia.
It is maintained by some scholars that a human figure, for the first time, that a marble stone relief was executed.
9. ASIKA (Probably on the left bankof the river Krishna), is mentioned in the Nasik inscription (dated circe 115 A.D.) of Gautami Balasri, it was conquered by the Satavahana rular Gautamiputra Satakarini (………) The latter fact reveals that Gautamiputra Satakarni gained a stronger hold of southern India which proved beneficial because of the continuing Saka pressure even after his victory against the Sakas. King Kharavela of Kalinga also made a claim of its conquest.
10. AVANTI (western Malva) one of the 16 Janapadas of 6th century B.C. with its capital at Ujjain; struggle dhard against Magadhan imperialism but in vain. According to Buddhist traditions, Asoka, the Mauryan ruler, served as the Viceroy of Avanti, while he was a prince.
Since Malwa region is important politically, and economically it became a bone of contention between the Sakas. And the Satavahanas, Rashtrakutas and Pratiharas in ancient India. It is through this region that the importanttrade routes from eastern and western Indian passed Via Ujjain to the important Western ports Bharukachchha (Broach) and Soparaka (Sopara).
11. ANGA one of the 16th Janapadas of 16th century B.C. Lay to the east of Magadha with Champa, near Bhagalpur, as its capital. Some of the Anga monarchas, like Brahmadatta, appear to have defeated their Magadha contemporaries. Subsequently, however, Magadha emerged supreme leading to the establishment of the first empire of ancient India. In other words, the conquest of Anga by Magadha was one of the stepping stones for the Magadhan Empire
12. BARHUT in central Indian is famous for Buddhist Stupa and stone railings which replaced the wooden ones in the Sunga period. Barhut sculptures depict the visit of king Ajatasatru to the Buddha. Barhut along with Sanchi and Bodh-Gaya represent the first organized art activity of the Indian people as a whole. Furthermore, all these clearly indicate the transition of sculpture from wood to stone.
13. BARYGAZA OR BHARUKACHCHA (Broach) was the oldest and largest northern most entrepot on the mouth of the Narmada river in modern Maharashtra. It handled the bulk of the trade with western Asia (Jataka stories and the Periplus mention it). It was also one of the district head quarters of the Saka rulers. According to Jain traditions, it was the capital of the Saka empire. It was international trade that mode Barygaza important in ancient India.
14. BARBARICUM was an important port in the Indus delta, receiving Chinese furs and silks through Bacteria for export to the West. It added to the growing prosperity of India in the first century A.D.
15. BADAMI (MODERN NAME FOR VATAPI) in Bijapur district was founded by pulkesin I as an early capital of the Western Chalukyas. It as a hill-fort and an exquisite cave temple of lord Vishnu excavated during the rule of Manglesh, the Chalukya ruler. Huen-tsang visited it.
16. BODH-GAYA situated six miles south of Gaya in Bihar on the western bank of the Nilajan river, was the place where the Buddha attained enlightenement. It was part of the Magadha janapada.
17. BANAVASI (north kanara in Karnataka) also known as Vaijayanti, was the capital of the Kadambas who were defeated by the Chalukya king Kirtivarman during the last quarter of the 6th century A.D. According to the Ceylonese chronicles Ashoka sent a mission to Deccan with the Monk Rkshita who went as far as Banavasi.
18. BRAHMAGIRI in Chitaldurg district of Karnataka, is remarkable for its continuity of cultural heritage extending from Neolithic (stone-age culture) to megalithic (early historic culture-3rd century B.C. to Ist century B.C. with possible links with Mediter anean and Caucasian Megaliths) revealing ancestory worship and animism pointing to the practice of cist and pit burials. It is the site of one of the two minor rock edicts of Askoka. These edicts suggest the provability of Ashoka entering the Sangha as a full monk after two and a half years of his conversion to Buddhism.
19. BURZAHOM in Kashmir Valley near Srinagar, is associated with megalithic settlements (dating 2400 B.C.) where the people lived on a plateau in pits using tools and weapons of stone (axe) and bones. (The only other site which has yielded considerable bone implements is Chirand, 40 km. West of Patna on the northern bank of the Ganges and using coarse grey pottery. The information that we gather from the two places, recently discovered, throws light on the proto-histroy of India).
20. BAMIYAN an important Buddhist and Gandhara Art center in Afghanistan in the early Christian centuries, has tall rock-cut Buddha statues. The ancient trade route linking north western India with China passed through it. It was the capital of the Hunas in the 5th and the 6th centuries A.D.
21. BELUR with a group of Hoysala monuments including the famous Chennakesava temple (built around 1117 A.D.) represents an art which applies to stone the technique of the ivory worker or the goldsmith.
22. CHIDAMBARAM a town in south Arcot district in Tamilnadu is famous for its great Hindu Siva Temple dedicated to Nataraja, i.e. Siva in his aspects of cosmic dance. The Nataraja sculptures are esteemed as tehgreatest specimens of sculpture in the world. Also, Chidambaram bears evidence to the birth as well as the development of Shaivism to begin with insouthern Indian and its consequential spread to the whole of India.
23. CHEDI OR CHETI one of the 16 Janapadas of 6th century B.C. roughly corresponds to modern Bundelkhand and adjacent tracts. It lay near the Kanuna, its metropolis was suktimati to Sottihivatinagar.
24. CAAMPA the capital city of the Anga Janapada on the border of Bengal was of great commercial importance in ancient times; for it was a river port from which ships would sail down the Ganges and the coast the south India, returning with jewels and spices which were much in demand in the North. By Mauryan times, with the eastward expansion of Aryan culture, Tamralipti replaced in in importance. An interesting feature of this is the fact that a Hindu Kingdom with the same name came into existence in the mainland of South east Asia. Indeed it is difficult to say how exactly this name came to be transplanted in South-east Asia.
25. DASAPURA modern Mandasor in western Malwa, was disputed between the Sakas and the Satavahanas. Its famous Siva temple of the guild of Silk weavers, was built during the reign of kumar Gupta I (414 A.D.-455 A.D.) the institution that is responsible for building the Siva temple indicates the climax of Indian trading and commercial activities in ancient Indian. It also reveals that manufacture of silk was no longer the secret monopoly of China and it had taken roots in India by the 5th century A.D.
26. DEVAKA modern Dokak in Nowgong district in Assam, a frontier country which paid tribute to Samudragupta claiming the payment of tribute by Kamarupa goes along with Devaka. However, it is to be borne in mind that Harisena's Prasasti is of doubtful historical validity. The one significant thing that is known is the fact that no ruler of the northern India could ever conquer the Assam region but instead Burma conquered it and it was wrenched from Burma by the British in 1829 by the Treaty of Yandavoo.
27. DEOGARH in Jhansi district of U.P. is famous for its Dasvatara Vishnu temple belonging to the Gupta period. The temple may be considered as most respresentative and well known example of the early sikhara style of temple architecture in example of the early sikhara style of temple architecture on the panels of its walls. Deogarh is one the temples with which began the temple architecture of India. In particular, the Shikhara is the unique feature of the northerntemples compared to those of southern Indian.
28. DWARAKA Legends associate this place toYadavas after the battle of Kurukshetra. According to mythology Dwaraka was destroyed by the huge tidal wave as per the forewarning of Lord Krishna. In very recent times Dr. S.R.Rao with the cooperation of the Department of Ocenography, did carry out under-sea explorations. Some artifacts including stone anchors have been found dating back to the Harappan period. The exploration is still continuing.
29. ELLORA With three distinct groups of rock-cut architecture associated with Buddhism, Jainism and Brahmanical Hinduism, is famous for its temple of Kailash (Siva) "an entire temple complex completely hewn-out of the live rock in imitation of a distinctive structural form". The temple ws built by the Rashtrakuta king Krishna I (758-773 A.D.) and is one of the most magnificent examples of Dravida architecture with its four principal characteristic components, viz. Vimana, Mandapa, nandi mandapa and gopuram. The Ellora sculptures are famous for their liveliness.
30. ERAN Besnagar district (Madhya Pradesh) is famous on account of Eran Inscriptions dated 510 A.D. This inscription mentions the practice of Sati, first of its kind. It is also famous for its colossal board, the zoomorphic incarnation of Lord Vishnu.
31. ELEPHANTA beautiful little island off Bombay, with latest cavetemples in Ellora style was famous for their sculpture, especially the great Trimutti figure of Siva, emblem of the Maharashtar Govt. representing the highest plastic expression of the Hindu concept of divinity.
32. GANDHARA with Taxila and peshwar as two capitals, in earlier and later ancient periods was one of the 16 Janapadas (6th century B.C.) onthenorth-western frontier of India. Under the Kushans it become a popular center of Mahayana Buddhism and Gandhara art- Indian images both secular and religious (the Buddha and Lord Krishna) but in long floating garments, as is the tradition of early Greek sculpture. It was a meeting ground for several civilizations and mercantile communities belonging to different countries.
33. GORATHAGIRA A hill fortress on the modern Barabar hills in the Gaya district of Bihar, was attacked by King Kharavela of Kalinga in the 8th year of his reign. This fact is known from the Hathigumpha Inscription of king Kharavela.
34. GANGAIKOND-CHOLA-PURAM was capital city of the greatest Chola ruler Rajendra Chola I (1012-1044 A.D.) who built it after the successful Chola military camaign upto the bank of the river Ganges in 1021-22. Currently the city lies inruins and its enormous tankshas dried up.
35. GIRNAR hill near Janagarh in Gujarat, where a Mauryan governor is said to have built an artificial lake, known as Sudarsana lake which Rudradaman, the Saka ruler renovated. Rudradaman's Sanskrit Inscription was located here and it is the first Sanskrit inscription It had been a sacred place to the Jainas since remote times because Jain shrines are also located here.
36. HASTINAPURA aim district Meerut in U.P. (known as Asandivant) was the capital of the ancient tribe of the Kurus. Later the floods destroyed it. Recent excavations prove that the people of this region used iron by about 700 B.C. that is the Aryans had learnt the art of making iron which revolutionized the whole socio-economic pattern of Aryan communities. It was this fact that lay at the base of the Economic Revolution that India passed through between 1000 B.C. to 600 A.D. with far too many consequences like the emergence of an empire, various kinds of guilds, brisk trade both with in and with out the country and links with buth South-east Asia and the Roman empire.
37. HATHIGUPHA on Udaigir hill, three miles from Bhuvaneshwar in the puri district of Orissa, is famous for an inscription in post-ashokan character, engraved inside the elephant cave. It depicts the meteoric and dazzling carer of Jaina king Kharavela, the 3rd ruler of the Cate dynasty. It also refers to the building of an equeduct in Kalinga by one of the Nanda rulers of Pataliputra. The importance of this inscription lies in the fact that it is the first important sign-post in fixing the chronology of ancient India.
38. HAILBID is famous for Hoysalesvara temple (Hoysala period) designed and built by Kedoroja, the master-building of Narasimha I. The infinite wealth of sculpture over the exterior of this temple makes it one of the most remarkable monuments of the world. Known as Dwaramudra it was the capital of the Hoysalas.
39. INDRAPRASTHA identified by Jain scholars with the site around the enclosure of the Purana Oila (Delhi) one of the sites of painted Grey Ware (10th century B.C.) finda, was the legendry capital of the Pandava brothers of the epic Mahabharata, which they lost to the Kauravas having been defeated in the gambling match. After the second battle of Tarain (1192) Moh. Gauri appointed Outbuddin Aibak as his deputy at Indraprastha which became a base for Aibak's successful operations against north Indian states.
40. KURA one of the 16 Janapadas of 6th century B.C., was in the neighbourhood of Delhi. Among its towns may be mentioned Indraprastha and Hastinapur. This place clearly brings home the truth to us that Mahabharata was not purely fictional story but some amount of historical evidence is embedded in the story. As a matter of fact, Vasudeve Krishna is now known as a historical personality as borne out by the writings of patanjali and other sources of evidence.
41. KAJANGALA in Raj mahal district in Eastern Bihar, where king Harsha (606-647 A.D.) held his court while campaigning in eastern India.The Chiense pilgrim Huen-Tsang first saw Harsha here.
42. KAPISA It is the region near Kabul, probably Kipin as referred to by Chineses writers. The presiding diety of the city according to Chiense writers was zeus. The Greek god. The gold and silver coins issued by the Greek kings have been discovered from this region in big numbers. The Greeks were the first to issue gold coins in India. These coins testify to the growing trade links between India and Central Asia and China and also with the Roman world. Far more important is the fact that these coins testify to the gowing worship of Vasudeva-krishna or the Bhagavata cult which later repened as Vaishnavism.
43. KIPIN is identified with Kapisa or Kafirstan in Kashmir. It indicated the wide region know in earlier times as the Mahajanapada of Kamboja. It was ruled by the Sakas, the Kushans and the Hunas in succession. The name Kamboja reappears as the name of kamboja, an important of the mainland of South-East Asia.
44. KAMPILYA was the capital of southern Panchalas, one of the tribal communities of the Aryans. This fact proves that the Aryans, to begin with in India, lived as various tribes. The tribes were in constant war with eachother culminating in the emergence of the Magadha Empire.
45. KUSAMDHVALA (Patliputara) Gargi-Samhita alludes that in the 2nd century B.C. the Yavanas (Indo-Bacterians) having reduced Saketa, Panchala, and Mathura reached kusumdhvana. Demetrios, was, most probably, the Yavana leader. He was defeated or he retired withouth fighting.
46. KASI one of the 16 Janapadas of the 6th century B.C. with its capital of the same name. It was also called Varanasi (69). It greatly prospered under the rule of Brahmadatta.
47. KOSAL one of the 16 janapadas of the 6th century B.C. had three different capitals (Saketa, Ayodhya and Sravasti) in three different periods. It region roughly corresponded to modern oudh.
48. KUSINAGAR (Kusinara ?) moder Kasia, in Gorakhpur district in UP was a small town where the Buddha attained Mahaparinirvana. It was one of the two capitals of the Mall Janapada in pre-Buddhists times. It was visited by Ashoka and the Chinese pilgrim Fa-hien.
49. KANYAKUBJA (Kanauj) on the bank of river Gangas in UP rose to prominence during the time of Mukhar is, Harsha and Gujara-Pratiharas. Under the pratiharas, Kanauj successfully resisted the Arabs. In the 9th century A.D. It was disputed among the Palas of Bengal, Prathiharas, and the Rashtrakutas. It was situated on a very important trade-route linking north-Western regions of India with Prayaga, Kasi, Vaishali, Pataliputra, Rajagriha, Tamralipti.
50. KAUSAMBI identified with the villagesof Kosam near Allahabad was one of the earliest cities, so prominent that Anand, the Buddhist monk, though it important enough for a Buddha to die in. Recent excavation it here unearthed historically and culturally important terracotta figures. It was built in the shape of a trapezium and was the capital of the vastse Janapada. One of the Ashokan Pillars was located here. It was also an inscription of the Kushan monarch.
60. KARNA-SUVARNA : refers to the region of Bengal and some parts of Bihar and Orrisa, fuled by sasanka in the early 7th century A.D. Harsha conquered the region from him after 619 A.D.
61. KANHERI In Thana district near Bombay, has rock cut Chaitya shrines with elaborately decorated railings belonging to the third century A.D. One inscription of the last great ruler of the Satavahana dynasty. Yajnasri Satakarni is found here. Kanheri Buddhist Tank inscription makes mention of Matiemonial relationship between the Sakas and the Satavahanas. It was the chief center of Buddhism in Rashtrakuta times. Faint traces of the art of paintings may be traced in the caves of Kanheri.
62. KANCHI modern canjeevaram, south-west to Madras is reckoned among the seven sacred cities of the Hindus. It was an important center of Jaina culture in the first half of the first millennium A.D. It was one of the south Indian kingdoms conquered by Samudragupta. It was visited by Huen-Tsang. It rose to prominence in 7th century A.D. Under the Pallava king. It possesses the famous Kailashnath temple (built by Pallava King Narsimhavarman - II) and Vaikuntha perumalla (constructed sometime after the kailashnath). The Kailashnath temple is a landmark in the development of dravida temple style with its characteristic components-vimana, mandapa gopuram and an array of vimanas along the walls of the court, i.e. peristyle cells.
63. KAVERIPATTANAM known as Puhar, was the Chola capital and chief port in Sangam period (200 B.C.- 300 A.D.) with a large colongy of foreigners. It was an important trade center. Ships sailing from here to South-East Asia. A long poem on this Chola capital is the part of the famous Sangam work pattupattu (Ten Idylls).
64. KURUKSHETRA near Thaneswar, to the north of Delhi in Haryana, was the site of the great battle of Mahbharata. This battle fought between the Kauravas and the Pandavas, formed the basis of the story of the greatness of India epics the Mahabharata. It is in this great war that Krishna prached his gospel of the Gita, to the Pandava hero Arjuna who saw his own elders and kishmen arranged himself for the fith and then early decided to renounce and retire. Krishna gave him the message of disinterested perfomance of duty i.e. renunciation in action but no renunciation of action. That a great war ws fought between the cousin brothers - Kauravas and Pandavas is quite possible.
65. MANYAKHET (modern Malkhed in Hyderabad region) was the capital of Rashtrakuta Amoghavarsha I in the 9th century A.D.
66. MAHABALIPURAM is today a tiny coastal village 65 kms. south of Madras. This port-city was founded by Pallava king Narasimhavarman in the 7th century A.D. Pallava kings created an architecture of their own which was to be the basis of all the styles of the south. In fact Mahabilipuram, the Pallava art with its monolithic temples (rathas) and rocks sculptured in the shapes of animals with a wonderfully broad and powerful naturalism, with whole cliffs worked in stone frescoes, immenspictures unparalleled at the time in all Indian in their order movement and lyrical value. The Descent of the Ganges, the unique masterpiece of Pallava art was surely one of the most remarkable compositions of all time (in which is portrayed the Ganges coming down to earth, with gods, animals men and all creation in adoration). The shore temple built by Rajasimha represents one of the earliest examples of structural temples. the Pallvava monuments at Mahabalipuram symbolize not only the transition from rock-architecture to structural stone temples but also significantly the completion of the "Aryanisation" of South India during the Pallava period.
67. MADHYAMIKA is identified with Nagari near Chitor in Rajasthan. Patanjali alludes toYavana (Indo-Bacterian) invasion of Madhyamika.
68. MUSHIKAS on the lower Indus with its capital at Alord. Was the greatest principality at the time of Alexander's invasion. Its king mousikanas submitted to Alexander after brave resistance.
69. MATIPUR modern Mandawar in district Bijnor of UP was a center of Hinayana Buddhist studies in the 6th and 7th centuries A.D. Huen-Tsang stayed here for some time.
70. MADURAI popularly known as the city of festivals, was the seat of the 3rd Sangam and was till the 14th century the capital of the Pandyan kingdom which had sea-borne brade with Rome and Greece. It is famous for the Minakshi temple.
80. MACCHA or Matsaya, was one of the 16 janapads. The Matsyas ruled to the west of the Jamuna and south of the Kurus. Their capital was at Viratnagar (modern Bairrat near Jaipur).
81. MALLA was one of the 16 Janapadas of the16th century B.C. The territory of the Mallas was on the mountain slopes probably to the north of the vijjain confederation. They had to branches with their capitals at Kusinagar and Pawa. But in pre-Buddhist time the Mallas were a monarchy.
82. MUZIRIS modern canganors in Kerala at the mouth of the river Periyar, an important port in Sangam period (20 B.C. - 300 A.D.) abounded in ships with cargoes from Arabia and Roman world. Later literature speaks of Roman settlements and a temple was built here ni honour of Augustus.
83. NAGARJUNAKONDA is Krishna Velley, harboured a Neolithic community with stone-axe-culture and primitive mode of agriculture. With a few classical accidental looking sculptures in proves trade and culture contacts with the Roman world. Survival of a Buddhist stupa proves it to be a Buddhist center in early Christian centuries. The beginning of Hindu temple architecture in south India are best traced in the remains of the early brick temples of the Ikshavakus excavated here anticipating the Nagara, Dravida and Vasars styles.
84. NASIK (also known as Naiskya and Govardhan) is famous for exquisite rock-cut Buddhist temple (of the period 2nd BC - 1st A.D.) with an engraved iscription of Gautami Balsari recording the achievement of the Satavahanas ruler Gautamiputra Satakarni). A large board of silver coins bearing the name, the titles of Nahapana were discovered at Jogalthambi very close to the Nasik suggesting the defeat of the Saka ruler bythe Satavahana knig. It is also famous for the Chaitya and Vihar as pan-du-lonea.
85. PITHUNDA on the Godavari, was the capital of the Avapeople or the Avamukta which was conquered as Samudragupta.
86. PADMAVATI was Nag capital is Gwalior region. Its king Ganapati Naga was defeated by Samudragupta.
87. PRATISHTHANA (Paithan) at the mouth of the river godavri in the Aurangabad district of Maharashtra, was the capital of Satavahana kings. It was an important commercial mart linked with Sravasti.
88. PURUSHPURA (modern Peshawar) was the capital of Kanishka's vast empire and the center of Gandhara art. It became the chief center of Buiddhist activity and studies with building of number of huge Chaityas and viharas and with one stupa. The Chiense pilgrims refer to a many storied relic-tower in which some relics of Buddha were enshrined. It is here that the icons of Buddha and other Hindu gods were first finely carved. In provided the meeting place of the marchants of India, China, central Asia, Persia, and the Roman world.
89. PATTADAKAL near Aihole Badami is famous for magnificentrock-cult and sculptures temples in Chalukya and Pallava style. The number of such temples is ten - four in the northern style and six in southern. Most famous of these temples is lokesvara temple (now called Virupaksha).
90. PANCHALA was one of the 16 janapadas of the 6th century B.C. Its area correspondent to modern Bundelkhand and the portion of the Central Doab. It had two divisions northern and southern, the Ganges forming the boundary line. Their capitals were Ahicchatra and Kampilya respectively. One of the early Panchalas kings, Durmukha, is credited with conquests in all directions.
91. PUSHKALAVATI i.e. the "city of lotuses' in Afganisthan to the north of the river Kabul (modern Charasadda) in the district of Peshawar was conquered by Alexandar. It was the old capital of western Gandhara. A gold coin (belonging to the 2nd century B.C.) with the city goddess (Lakshmi) holding a lotus in her right hand and an appropriate Kharoshthi legend "Pakhalavati devata" had been discovered here pointing to the popularity of Indian goddess. It remained under the rule of the Indo-Greeks, the sakas and the Kushana. It was an important link in India's trade relations with central Asia and China.
92. RAJAGRIHA moder Rajgir, near Patna in Bihar was and ancient capital of Magadha under Bimbisara and Ajatsatru. It was here that first Buddhist council was held after the death of Buddha. The cyclopean walls of the this old commercial town are among themost remarkable finds in India.
93. SAKALA modern Sialkot, capital of Menander, was the refuge of Buddhist monks. It was here, according to Buddhist tradition, that Pushyamitra Sungha declared to give an award of 199 dinars for the head of a Buddhist monk.
94. SANCHI :near Bhopal famous for a Buddhist stupa and for one of Ashoka's Minor Pillar Edicts. Sanchi sculptures along with Bharhut Godh-Gaya represent the first organized art activity of the Indian People. There are reliefs of the Jatkas on the stone walls around the stupa. Sanchi revealed historically important inscription of the Satavahanas and the Gupta kings. Kakanodbota probably was the ancient name for Sanchi, which was inhabited by the tribal people Kakar, and was conquered by the Samudragupta.
95. SRAVASTI moder Saket-Mahet on the borders of the Gonda and the Bahraich districts of U.P. On the river Rapti - It was a famous center of trade in ancient times, from where three important trade routes emanated linking it with Rajagriha, Pratishthana, and Taxila. It was one of the early capitals of the Janapad of Kosal. Later, it served as the provincial headquarters of the Gupta kings. Fa-hien visited it.
96. SAKETA region around Ayodhya, was invaded by Yavanas (Indo-Bacterin) is attested to by Patanjali.
97. SARNATH near Varanasi, is the place where the Buddha delivered his frist sermon in the Deer park, this event being known as the "Turning of the Wheel of Law". It is the site of the famous Ashokan Pillar of Polished sand-stone whose lion capital was adopted by the people of Free India as the state emblem. It was also the famous seat of Gupta sculpture. Gupta plastic art reached its perfection e.g. the seated Buddha in preaching posture.
98. SRAVANA-BELGOLA in Hasan district of Karnataka, is famous for the monolithic statue of Gometeswara- 85fit. High, erected in 980 A.D. by Chemundya Rai, the chief minister of the Ganga king Rachmal.
99. SOPARA port town known to the Periplus and ptolmey, carried most of the ancient Indian trade with foreign countries; gradually it began to lose its importance to Berygaza and Barharium- Ist century A.D. onwards. It ahs survived as a village 40 miles north of Bombay.
100. TOSALI (Dhauli) near Bhuaneshwar in Puri district of Orissa, was the seat of one of the Mauryan viceroyalties as well as one of the fourteen major rock edicts of Ashoka. The Tosali rock edict refers only to the conquered province.
101. TRIPURI now village near Jabalpur, was the capital of the Kalachuri dynasty. The Kalachuri kings became independent in 10th century A.D. In 1939, Tripuri had the distinction of being the venue of the 54th session of Indian National congress.
102. TAMRALIPTI Tamluk in the Midnapur district of Western Bengal was one of the most important port-towns of ancient India. Outlet to south-east Asia when there was trade boom.
103. TANJORE is famous for Rajarajeswava or Brihadeswara temple of lord Shiva which is the largest and tallest of all India temples with its vimana towering to a height of nearly 200 feet over the Garbhagriha with Pyramidal body in thirteen tiers. It was the seat of Chola government in the 9th century A.D. and later of an independent kingdom after the fall of ther Vijayanagar Empire. Weight of the cap 80 tonnes. Conceived on a gigantic scale. Stone relief as minute as that of jewelers.
104. THANESWAR near Kurukshetra, to the north of Delhi in the province of Haryana, was the capital of the Pushyabhuti dynsty. The kingdom of thanesar emerged into a powerful state under Harsha's (606-647 A.D.) father, Prabhakarvardhan who was in constant warfare against the Huns on the frontier and with the rulers of Malwa. Harsha shifted his capital from Thaneswar to Kannauj. According to Heun-Tsang the people of this city were specially inclined to trade. Thus thanesar was a principal center of trade. It was attacked by Mahmud of Ghazni in 1014 A.D. it is here that ahmad Shah Abdali first defeated the Maratha army in 1759 boding to the Maratha collapse at Panipat in 1761.
105. UJJAIN in Madhya pradesh was the capital of Avanti (6th century B.C.) and Chandragupta II, and was one of the provincial capitals of the Mauryas. It was the modal point of two ancient trade routes, one from Kausambui and the other from Mathura, its chief exports being agate, jasper and carnelian. It has an observatory built by Maharaja Savai Jai Sing II (1686-1743).
106. URAIYUR also known as Aragaru,on the river Kavari, was for some time the Sangam chola capital, was famous for its pearls and muslin, the latter being as think as the slough of the snake.
107. UTTARMERUR is a village of Tamil Nadu where nearly two hundred inscriptions belonging to Pallava and Chola periods indicating the nature and working of the village administration have been found. According to Uttarmerur inscriptions Pallava and Chola villages enjoyed maximum of autonomy inadministrative matters with popular village assemblies like the Ur, Sabha, Mahasabha or Nagaram looking after the village affains without any interference from royal officers. The village of Uttarmerur was divided in thirty wards.
108. VATSGULMA modern Basim in the Ahoka district in the South of Ajanta, was the capital of a Junior branch of the Vakatakas who are mentioned in the Ajanta cave inscriptiona No. XVI.
109. VIDISA modern Besnagar, near Bhilsa, in East Malwa, was a part of Sunga empire with Agnimitra, the sone of Pushyamitra Sunga as viceroy. The Vidisa guild of ivory worker was famous for these workers carved the stone sculpture on the gateways and railings surrounding the Sanchi Stupa. It indicates commercial prosperity. It was also famous for the Garuda Pillar Inscription which testified its erection by a Greak ambassabor named Heliodorus in honour of Vasudeva Krishna, the god of the Bhagavatas.
110. VAISHALI indentified with modern Basali in Muzaffarpur district of Bihar, was apulent and prosperous town in the Buddhist period. The second Buddhist Councial was held here. It served as the capital of lichchavis. Later, Ajatsatru annexed it to this kingdom. Ambapali, the famous charming courtesan, lived here and hosted to the Buddha at one time and later she became a convert to Buddhism.
111. VENGI (in Andhra Pradesh) one of the south Indian kingdoms probably joined the Sangha conquered by Samudragupta. It was the capital of the eastern Chalukyas, and was disputed between the Chalukyas and the Pallavas

Ancient Place names and Historic sites

Bamiyan Kapsa Pushkalavati
Purushpura (Peshawar) Massage Sahabazgarhi
Manshere Taxila Burzahom
Srinagar Sakala Mehrgarh
Marappa (Hariyupa?) Yaudheya Jalandhara
Rupar Kalibangan Banavali
Thanesvara Kalsi Topra
Kurukshetra Alamgirpur Hastinapur
Indraprastha Ahicchatra Mathura
Kampilya Kanyakubja Sravasti
Niglava Ayodhya Rummindei
Kapilvastu Pavapuri Kusinagar
Rampurva Lauriya-Nandangarh Lauriya - Araraj
Vaisali Chirand Pataliputara
Purnia Barbar and Gorthagiri Gaya
Rajagriha Nalanda Champa
Devaka Navadvipa Tamralipti
Kandhar Mohenjodro Kot Diji
Amri Chanho-daro Barbaricum
Pushkar (Ajmer) Sakambhari Nindowari (near 53)
Bairat (Bhabra) Jaipur Padmavati
Deogarh Bharhut Kausambi
Prayaga Sarnath Kasi
Arbuda Madhyamika Daspura
Eran Ujjayani Besnagar
Sanchi Vidisa Rupanath
Tripuri Surkotada Evarka
Lothal Rangapur Girhar (Girinagar or Junagarh)
Valabhi Somnath Bharukacche (Broach, Barygaza)
Bagh Mahismati Harda
Bhagtrav Surat Anupad
Ajanta Ellora Devagiri
Pratisthana (Paithan) Nasik Aparanta
Kanheri Surparaka (Sopara) Elechanta
Karle Bhaja Vatagulma
Maha Kosal Mahakantar Sisupalgarh
Dhauli (Tosali) Puri-Hathigumpha Jauguda
Gangam Kottura Mahendragiri
Devaragiri Devarasthra Visakhapatnam
Pishtapura Kalyana Manyakheta
Vengi Kaurala Ghantasala
Amravati Vatapi Aihole
Maski Yarragudi Vanavasi (Banavasi or Vaijayanti)
Brahmagiri Pallaka Dwarsmudra
Belur Sravana Belgola Kanchi
Uttarmerur Mamlalpuram Sopatma
Arikamdeu Chidambaram Puhar (Kaveripatnam)
Gangaikonda -Choleapuram Nagapattanam Naura
Tyndis Kongu Uraiyar
Srirangam Tiruchirapali Tanjor (Tanjavur)
Madurai Muziris Nelcynda
Balita Korkai Kanyakumari
Tondi Anurudhapur Sriengri (near 133)
Kajangala (near 43) Pattakakal (near 125) Iskkeri (near 132)


1. Magsaysay Award for public service for the year 2007 is-
(a) Jovito R. Salonga
(b) Mahabir Pun
(c) Kim Sun Tai
(d) Tan xhiyang
Ans (c)
2. M.S. Swaminathan received
(a) Magsaysay award (b) Padma Vibhushan
(c) Padmabhushan award (d) all the above
Ans (d)
3. Arjuna Award was introduced in
(a) 1961 (b) 1969 (c) 1972 (d) 1995
Ans (a) Arjuna award is given to prominent sports persons in India.
4. Gandhi Peace Prize for the year 2006 was awarded to -
(a) C. Subramaniam (b) Shabana Azmi
(c) Satish Dhawan (d) Word Health Organisation
Ans (b)
5. Name the film which won Best Picture Oscars Award at the 80th Annual Academy Awards in 2008-
(a) Mystic River (b) Cold Mountain
(c) No Country for Old Men
(d) Departed
Ans (c)
6. U-Tant award is given for:
(a) Contribution to east-west understanding
(b) Community leadership
(c) Social Service
(d) Journalism
Ans (c)
7. Who among the following has been awarded the Sydney peace Prize 2004 for her work in social campaigns and advocacy to non-violence?
(a) Medha Padkar (b) Vandana Shiva
(c) Arundharti Rai (d) Aparna Sen (e) None of these
Ans (c)
8. Which film has won best Feature Film Award in the 53rd National Film Award in the year 2007?
(a) Kaalpurush
(b) Rang De Basanti
(c) Fanna
(d) Don
Ans (a)
9. Doris Lessing , who won the Nobel Peace Prize in 2007, is from -
(a) Iraq
(b) Nigeria
(c) United Kingdom
(d) Libya
Ans (c)
10. Which of the following authors won the Booker Prize for the year 2007 ?
(a) Margaret Atwood
(b) Anne Enright
(c) Graham Swift
(d) Ian Mc EwanAns (b)
11. The Nobel Prize winners for Medicine in 2007 is / are -
(a) Mario Capecchi
(b) Martin Evans
(c) Oliver Smithies
(d) All of the above
Ans (b)
12. The Ramon Magsaysay Award winner Shanta Sinha known as
(a) a campaigner for urban sanitation
(b) an anti-child labour activist
(c) an organiser of rain-water harvesting schemes
(d) an activist for the welfare of poor rural women
Ans (b)
13. The first recipient of Kalinga Prize was
Ans : French physicist Louis de Broglie
14. Kalinga Prize, an International prize is awarded annually for the recognition of outstanding achievement in the interpretation and popularization of
Ans : Science
15. Nehru Award is instituted for
Ans : International understanding and peace
16. The scientist who was conferred with all the three national awards: Padma Bhushan, Padma Vibhushan and Bharat Ratna
Ans : Dr. A.P.J. Abdul Kalam
17. The first recipient of Gandhi Peace Prize was
Ans : Dr. Julius N. Nyerera
18. In the following who was not a Miss World
(a) Yuktha Mookhey
(b) Aishwarya Rai
(c) Priyanka Chopra
(d) Sushmita Sen
Ans (d)
19. Oscar Award is associated with
Ans : Cinema
20. The winner of the Jnanapeetam award for the first time
Ans : G. Sankara Kurup
21. Booker prize is given to the field of
Ans : Fiction writing
22. The Nobel Prizes were established by-
Ans : Alfred Bernhard Nobel
23. The first Nobel Prizes were awarded in the year
Ans : 1901
24. The first winner of Nobel Prize in Medicine or Physiology is
Ans : Emil Adolph von Behring (Germany)
25.The first winner of Nobel Prize in Peace is
Ans : Jean Henri Dunant (Switzerland) & Frederic Passy (France)
26. The first winner of Nobel Prize in Literature is
Ans : Sully Prudhomme (France)
27. Nobel Prize award in Economics has been awarded from the year
Ans : 1969
28. The first winner of Nobel Prize in Economic Science is
Ans : Ragnar Frisch (Norway) & Jan Tinbergen (Netherlands)
29. The first winner of Nobel Prize in Chemistry is
Ans : Jacobus H. van't Hoff (Netherlands)
30. The first winner of Nobel Prize in Physics is
Ans : Wilhelm C. Roentgen (Germany)
31. The founder of Nobel Prizes, Alfred Nobel belongs the country
Ans : Sweden
32. Indira Gandhi Paryavaran Puraskar is given in which field
Ans : Environment
33. Who was the second winner of 'Jnanapeetam Award'
Ans : Tharasankar Banerjee
34. Rabindranath Tagore was the Nobel prize winner for literature in 1913. Who received the award in 1914
(a) Rudyard Kipling
(c) Bernard Shaw
(c) Romain Rolland
(d) Nobody
Ans (D)
35. The winner of Nobel Prize for literature for 2007 is
Ans : Doris Lessing
36. The winner of Indira Gandhi Peace ,Integration and Disarmament Prize for 2007 is -
Ans : The Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation
37. Kalinga Prize is awarded by
(a) Indian Government
(b) Orissa Government
Ans (d)
38. What is the highest peace time gallantry award in India
(a) Bharat ratna
(b) Param Vir Chakra
(c) Ashok Chakra
(d) Vir Chakra
Ans (c)
39. The highest science award in India
Ans ; S.S. Bhatnagar award
40.Phalke award is given to persons of which field
Ans : Film
41. Arjuna award is given for the excellence in
Ans : Sports
42. Who was the first Indian lady actress to receive the Padma Shri Award
Ans : Nargis Dutt
43. Dada Saheb Phalke award is for the contribution to
Ans : Cinema
44. Who was the first Ramon Magsaysay Award winner from India
Ans : Acharya Vinoba Bhave
45. The first woman to recipient of Bharat Ratna was
Ans : Indira Gandhi

Data Entry Operator gk

Data Entry Operator
1. Which of the following is the winner of Miss Universe 2008
(A) Riyo Mori
(B) Zhang Zilin
(C) Dayana Mendoza
(D) Simaran Kaur Mundi

2. The President of India can nominate to the Rajya Sabha :
(A) 6 members
(B) 9 members
(C) 12 members
(D) 15 members

3. The first General elections under the Indian constitution were held in :
(A) 1950
(B) 1951
(C) 1952
(D) 1953

4. The President of India is elected by :
(A) Parliament
(B) State legislatures
(C) by the people directly
(D) by an electrol college consisting of the elected members of the Lok Sabha, the Rajya Sabha and the State Legislative Assemblies.

5. Which article of the Indian constitution empowers the President of India to impose central rule on a state?
(A) Article 256
(B) Article 356
(C) Article 370
(D) Article 373

6. The time-gap between two sessions of parliament must not exceed :
(A) 3 months
(B) 6 months
(C) 9 months
(D) 12 months

7. The vacancy in the office of the President must be filled within :
(A) 6 month
(B) 9 month
(C) 12 month
(D) 3 month

8. The drafting committee of the Indian Constitution was headed by :
(A) Dr. B. R. Ambedkar
(B) Dr. Rajendra Prasad
(C) N. Gopalaswamy
(D) Jawahar Lal Nehru

9. The Union Cabinet is responsible to :
(A) The Rajya Sabha only
(B) The Lok Sabha only
(C) The Lok Sabha and the Rajya Sabha
(D) The President of India

10. Which of the following bodies has not been provided for by the Indian constitution ?
(A) Election Commission
(B) Planning Commission
(C) Finance Commission
(D) Union Public Service Commission

11. The number of Anglo-Indians who can be nominated by the President to the Lok Sabha is :
(A) 2
(B) 3
(C) 4
(D) 5

12. The sanctioned strength of the Judges of Supreme Court of India including the Chief Justice is :
(A) 15
(B) 17
(C) 20
(D) 26

13. Who was the first President of India to be elected unopposed?
(A) Dr. S. Radhakrishana
(B) N. Sanjiva Reddy
(C) V. V. Giri
(D) Dr. Rajendra Prasad

14. The maximum strength of the Lok Sabha and the Rajya Sabha is :
(A) 525 and 250
(B) 552 and 250
(C) 535 and 275
(D) 500 and 250

15. If the Vice-president were to submit his resignation, he would notify to :
(A) The President of India
(B) The Prime Minister
(C) The Chief Justic of India
(D) The Speaker of the Lok Sabha

16. What is the minimum strength of a State Legislative Assembly?
(A) 40
(B) 60
(C) 50
(D) 70

17. India is the third developing country to host the 2010 commonwealth Games. The other two are :
(A) Malaysia and South Korea
(B) Singapore and Jamaica
(C) Jamaica & China
(D) Malaysia & Jamaica

18. The Comptroller and Auditor General of India is appointed by the :
(A) Prime Minister of India
(B) President of India
(C) Finance Minister
(D) Lok Sabha

19. Article 370 of the Indian constitution deals with :
(A) The Emergency Powers of the President
(B) The special position of the state of Jammu and Kashmir
(C) The power of the President to seek the advisory opinion of the Supreme Court on any matter of public importance
(D) Distribution of taxes between the Centre and the State

20. The Supreme commander of the Defence Forces of India is :
(A) The Defence Minister
(B) The Prime Minister
(C) The Chief of the Army Staff
(D) The President of India

21. Which of the following rivers flows through a rift valley?
(A) Kaveri
(B) Krishna
(C) Tapti
(D) Godavari

22. The Manas Wildlife Sanctuary is located in the state of :
(A) Assam
(B) Uttar Pradesh
(C) Rajasthan
(D) West Bengal

23. How many major ports are there at present in India?
(A) 8
(B) 12
(C) 15
(D) 14

24. The earth revolves round the sun and its causes :
(A) Differences in longitude and time
(B) Changes of seasons
(C) Deflection of winds and currents
(D) Formation of day and night

25. Latitude of a point on the earth is measured by the distance in :
(A) Kilometres from the Equator
(B) Angles from the Equator
(C) Angles from the Poles
(D) None of the above

26. The earth is :
(A) Spherical
(B) Elliptical
(C) Oblate Spheroid
(D) Prolate Spheroid

27. Day and Night are equal at the :
(A) Equator
(B) Poles
(C) Prime Meridian
(D) Antarctic

28. The heaviest planet revolving round the sun is :
(A) Moon
(B) Jupiter
(C) Neptune
(D) Pluto

29. The biggest Planet is :
(A) Venus
(B) Mars
(C) Mercury
(D) Jupiter

30. The International Date line passes through :
(A) Exactly through 180° Longitude
(B) Equator
(C) Approximately 180° east or west meridian
(D) 0° Meridian

31. The largest river of Asia is :
(A) Yangtze
(B) Yenisei
(C) Indus
(D) Mekong

32. Which country is called the `Sugar Bowl' of the world?
(A) Cuba
(B) India
(C) Nepal
(D) Norway

33. Which of the following countries has the largest area in the world?
(B) Russia
(C) Canada
(D) China

34. The world's highest waterfall, the Angel Falls is situated in :
(A) Venezuela
(C) Guyana
(D) Australia

35. The universe is composed of :
(A) Earth
(B) Earth and the Sun
(C) Mat
(D) None

36. The Temperate Grasslands of South America are called :
(A) Pampas
(B) Steppes
(C) Savanna
(D) Evergreen grasslands

37. Rial is the currency of :
(A) Romania
(B) Iran
(C) Japan
(D) Libya

38. New Moore island is situated in the :
(A) Indian Ocean
(B) Bay of Bengal
(C) Arabian Sea
(D) China Sea

39. Which river in the world carries the maximum volume of water?
(A) Amazon
(B) Nile
(C) Mississippi Missouri
(D) Ganga

40. Which of the following rivers crosses the equator twice?
(A) Amazon
(B) Nile
(C) Congo
(D) Orinoco

41. The Indus Valley civilization is associated with :
(A) Egyptians
(B) Sumerians
(C) Chinese
(D) Mesopotamians

42. The Indus Valley Civilization was famous for :
(A) Well planned cities
(B) Efficient civic organisation
(C) Progress of art and architecture
(D) All the above

43. Who was mainly worshipped in the Rig Vedic Period?
(A) Indra
(B) Vishnu
(C) Sun
(D) Trimurti

44. Who is regarded as the great law-giver of ancient India?
(A) Panini
(B) Manu
(C) Kautilya
(D) Dhruv

45. Which of the following is the oldest Veda?
(A) Samaveda
(B) Rigveda
(C) Yajurveda
(D) Atharvaveda

46. Who among the following was called Light of Asia?
(A) Mahavira
(B) Buddha
(C) Akbar
(D) Ashoka

47. Who was the founder of the Gupta dynasty?
(A) Srigupta
(B) Chandragupta II
(C) Samudragupta
(D) Kumargupta

48. The Upanishads are :
(A) A source of Hindu philosophy
(B) Books of Ancient Hindu laws
(C) Books on social behaviour of man
(D) Prayers to God

49. The biggest mosque of India was built by :
(A) Aurangzeb
(B) Shahjahan
(C) Akbar
(D) Jahangir

50. The first Battle of Panipat was fought between :
(A) Sher Shah Suri and Akbar
(B) Humayun and Ibrahim Lodhi
(C) Babar and Ibrahim Lodhi
(D) Babar and Ranasanga

51. The Chinese pilgrim who visited India during the period of Harshavardhana was :
(A) Fa-hien
(B) Hiuen Tsang
(C) Itsing
(D) Wang-sung

52. Who among the following belonged to the moderate group of the Indian National Congress?
(A) Lala Lajpat Rai
(B) Bipin Chandra Pal
(C) Gopal Krishna Gokhale
(D) Bal Gangadhar Tilak

53. Fa-hien came to India during the reign of :
(A) Ashoka
(B) Chandragupta II
(C) Harsha
(D) Kanishka

54. Which of the following temples was built by the Cholas?
(A) Shore Temple, Mahabali-puram
(B) Brihadeeswara Temple, Tanjavur
(C) Sun Temple, Konark
(D) Meenakshi Temple, Madurai

55. Which dynasty was well-known for excellent village administration?
(A) Pandyas
(B) Pallavas
(C) Cholas
(D) Chalukyas

56. The Ajanta Caves were built during the period of the :
(A) Guptas
(B) Kushanas
(C) Mauryas
(D) Chaulkyas

57. The eight-fold path was propounded by :
(A) Kabirdas
(B) Buddha
(C) Shankaracharya
(D) Mahavira

58. Who were the first to issue gold coins in India?
(A) Mauryas
(B) Indo-Greeks
(C) Guptas
(D) Kushanas

59. `The Vedas contain all the truth' was interpreted by :
(A) Swami Vivekananda
(B) Swami Dayananda
(C) Raja Ram Mohan Rai
(D) None of the above

60. Sanchi portrays the art and sculpture of the :
(A) Jains
(B) Buddhists
(C) Muslims
(D) Christians

61. Which among the following is a folk dance of India?
(A) Manipuri
(B) Garba
(C) Kathakali
(D) Mohiniattam

62. Kathak is the principal classical dance of :
(A) South India
(B) Eastern India
(C) Northern India
(D) Western India

63. The classical dance of Andhra Pradesh is :
(A) Kathakali
(B) Kuchipudi
(C) Odissi
(D) Bharatanatyam

64. The popular folk song of Uttar Pradesh is known as :
(A) Maang
(B) Kajari
(C) Baul
(D) Boli

65. The folk theatre of Bihar is calledÿ:
(A) Rammat
(B) Nautanki
(C) Bidesia
(D) Manch

66. Which of the following classical dance originated in Tamil Nadu ?
(A) Kathakali
(B) Kathak
(C) Bharatanatyam
(D) Odissi

67. The oldest form of composition of the Hindustani vocal music is :
(A) Ghazal
(B) Dhrupad
(C) Thumari
(D) None of the above

68. Indian classical dance has been popularized abroad by :
(A) Malaika Arora
(B) Gopi Krishna
(C) Uday Shankar
(D) Yamini Krishnamurti

69. Tamasha is the famous folk form of musical theatre and belong to :
(A) Uttar Pradesh
(B) Punjab
(C) Maharashtra
(D) Bihar

70. The Sangeet Natak Akademi fosters the development of dance, drama and music in the country. When was it established ?
(A) 1951
(B) 1953
(C) 1954
(D) 1956

71. When was the Planning Commission set up to prepare a blue print of development for the country?
(A) 1948
(B) 1949
(C) 1950
(D) 1951

72. Who was the first Chairman of the Planning Commission?
(A) Dr. S. Radhakrishnan
(B) Dr. Rajendra Prasad
(C) Jawahar Lal Nehru
(D) Sardar Patel

73. The National Development Council was set up in :
(A) 1948
(B) 1950
(C) 1951
(D) 1962

74. The First Five-year plan covered the period :
(A) 1947-52
(B) 1950-55
(C) 1951-56
(D) 1952-57

75. Removal of poverty was the fore-most objective of which of the following five year plans?
(A) Third
(B) Fourth
(C) Fifth
(D) Sixth

76. Planning Commission is :
(A) Advisory body
(B) Executive body
(C) Government body
(D) Autonomous body

77. The Community Development Programme was launched in :
(A) 1950
(B) 1952
(C) 1956
(D) 1960

78. The highest body which approves the Five-Year Plan is the :
(A) Finance Ministry
(B) Lok Sabha
(C) Rajya Sabha
(D) National Development Council

79. Which of the following commodities earn maximum foreign exchange for India?
(A) Jute
(B) Iron and Steel
(C) Tea
(D) Sugar

80. The one rupee note bears the signature of :
(A) Secretary, Ministry of Finance
(B) Governor, Reserve Bank of India
(C) Finance Minister
(D) None of these

81. How many banks were nationalized in 1969?
(A) 16
(B) 14
(C) 15
(D) 20

82. The Reserve Bank of India was established in :
(A) 1820
(B) 1920
(C) 1935
(D) 1940

83. The first Indian Bank was :
(A) Traders Bank
(B) Imperial Bank
(C) Presidency Bank of Calcutta
(D) None

84. The rupee coin was first minted in India in :
(A) 1542
(B) 1601
(C) 1809
(D) 1677

85. The Export-Import (EXIM) Bank was set up in :
(A) 1980
(B) 1982
(C) 1981
(D) 1989

86. Which of the following is not a chemical action?
(A) Burning of coal
(B) Conversion of water into steam
(C) Digestion of food
(D) Burning of Paper

87. The chemical name of vitamin C is :
(A) Citric acid
(B) Ascorbic acid
(C) Oxalic acid
(D) Nitric acid

88. Permanent harness of water is due to the presence of :
(A) Calcium bicarbonate
(B) Magnesium bicarbonate
(C) Calcium sulphate
(D) Sodium bicarbonate

89. Liquified Petroleum Gas (LPG) consist of :
(A) Butane and propane
(B) Ethane and hexane
(C) Ethane and nonane
(D) None of these

90. Which of the following is present in hard water :
(A) Calcium
(B) Aluminium
(C) Sodium
(D) Chlorine

91. Ecology deals with :
(A) Birds
(B) Cell formation
(C) Tissues
(D) Relation between organisms and their environment

92. Meteorology is the science of :
(A) Weather
(B) Meteors
(C) Metals
(D) Earthquakes

93. Entomology deals with :
(A) Plants
(B) Animals
(C) Insects
(D) Chemicals

94. Numismatics is the study of :
(A) Coins
(B) Numbers
(C) Stamps
(D) Space

95. When ice melts in a beaker of water, the level of water in the beaker will :
(A) Increase
(B) Decrease
(C) Remain the same
(D) First increase and then decrease

96. Which of the following does not admit any division?
(A) Atom
(B) Molecules
(C) Compounds
(D) All

97. What is the approximate velocity of sound in air :
(A) 3 m/s
(B) 30 m/s
(C) 300 m/s
(D) 3000 m/s

98. Which of the following is not a primary colour :
(A) Blue
(B) Green
(C) Red
(D) Black

99. Sound travels fastest through :
(A) Vacuum
(B) Steel
(C) Water
(D) Air

100. Who is the present Governor of Bihar ?
(A) R.S.Gavai
(B) R.L.Bhatia
(C) Buta Singh
(D) Syed Sibti Razi

1. (C) 2. (C) 3. (C) 4. (D) 5. (B) 6. (B) 7. (A) 8. (A) 9. (B) 10. (B)
11. (A) 12. (D) 13. (B) 14. (B) 15. (A) 16. (B) 17. (D) 18. (B) 19. (B) 20.
(D) 21. (C) 22. (A) 23. (B) 24. (B) 25. (B) 26. (C) 27. (A) 28. (B) 29. (D) 30. (C)
31. (A) 32. (A) 33. (B) 34. (A) 35. (C) 36. (A) 37. (B) 38. (B) 39. (A) 40. (A)
41. (B) 42. (D) 43. (A) 44. (B) 45. (B) 46. (B) 47. (A) 48. (A) 49. (B) 50. (C)
51. (B) 52. (C) 53. (B) 54. (B) 55. (C) 56. (A) 57. (B) 58. (B) 59. (B) 60. (B)
61. (B) 62. (C) 63. (B) 64. (B) 65. (C) 66. (C) 67. (B) 68. (C) 69. (C) 70. (B)
71. (C) 72. (C) 73. (C) 74. (C) 75. (D) 76. (A) 77. (B) 78. (D) 79. (C) 80. (A)
81. (B) 82. (C) 83. (C) 84. (A) 85. (B) 86. (B) 87. (B) 88. (C) 89. (A) 90. (A)
91. (D) 92. (A) 93. (C) 94. (A) 95. (C) 96. (A) 97. (C) 98. (D) 99. (B) 100. (B)

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