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Sunday, October 28, 2012

Champions League T20 2012:Sydney Sixers beat Highveld Lions

Sydney Sixers beat Highveld Lions to win Champions League T20

The Australian club registered an all-round performance to remain unbeaten in the tournament.


After Reshuffle on 30-10-2012 :Complete list of Manmohan Singh's new team


Sharad Pawar: Minister of agriculture and minister of food processing industries

A K Antony: Minister of defence

P Chidambaram: Minister of finance

Sushil Kumar Shinde: Minister of home affairs

Salman Khursheed: Minister of external affairs

Ghulam Nabi Azad: Minister of health and family welfare

M Veerappa Moily: Minister of petroleum and natural gas

Farooq Abdullah: Minister of new and renewable energy

S Jaipal Reddy: Science and technology and earth sciences

Kamal Nath: Minister of urban development & parliamentary affairs

Ajit Singh: Minister of civil aviation

Vayalar Ravi: Minister of overseas indian affairs

Mallikarjun Kharge: Minister of labour and employment

Kapil Sibal: Minister of communications and information technology

Anand Sharma Minister of Commerce and Industry Minister of Textiles

C P Joshi: Minister of road transport and highways

Kumari Selja: Minister of social justice and empowerment

G K Vasan: Minister of shipping

Pawan K Bansal: Minister of railways

M K Alagiri: Minister of chemicals and fertilizers

Praful Patel: Minister of heavy industries and public enterprises

Shriprakash Jaiswal: Minister of coal

K Rahman Khan: Minister of minority affairs

V Kishore Chandra Deo: Minister of tribal affairs minister of panchayati raj

Beni Prasad Verma: Minister of steel

Jairam Ramesh: Minister of rural development

Dinsha Patel: Minister of mines

Ajay Maken: Minister of housing and urban poverty alleviation

M M Pallam Raju: Minister of human resource development

Ahswani Kumar: Minister of law and justice

Harish Rawat: Minister of water resources

Chandresh Kumari Katoch: Minister of culture


Manish Tewari: Minister of state (independent charge) of the ministry
of information and broadcasting

Krishna Tirath: Minister of state (independent charge) of the ministry
of women and child development

K Chiranjeevi: Minister of state (independent charge) of the ministry of tourism

K V Thomas: Minister of state (independent charge) of the ministry of
consumer affairs, food and public distribution

Srikant Jena: Minister of state (independent charge) of the ministry
of statistics and programme implementation and minister of state of
the ministry of chemicals and fertilizers

Jayanthi Natrajan: Minister of state (independent charge) of the
ministry of environment and forests

Paban Singh Ghatowar: Minister of state (independent charge) of the
ministry of development of north eastern region and minister of state
of the ministry of parliamentary affairs

Jyotiraditya Madhavrao Scindia: Minister of state (independent charge)
of the ministry of power.

K H Muniappa: Minister of state (independent charge) of the ministry
of micro, small and medium enterprises

Sachin Pilot: Minister of state (independent charge) of the ministry
of corporate affairs

Jitendra Singh: Minister of state (independent charge) of the ministry
of youth affairs and sports

Bharatsinh Solanki: Minister of state (independent charge) of the
ministry of drinking water and sanitation


E Ahamed: Minister of state in the ministry of external affairs

D Purandeswari: Minister of state in the ministry of commerce and industry

Jitin Prasada: Minister of state in the ministry of defence and human
resource development

S Jagathrakshakan: Minister of state in the ministry of new and renewable energy

K C Venugopal: Minister of state in the ministry of civil aviation

Rajeev Shukla: Minister of state in the ministry of parliamentary
affairs and planning

Mullappally Ramachandran: Minister of state in the ministry of home affairs

V Narayanasamy: Minister of state in the ministry of personnel, public
grievances and pensions minister of state in the prime minister's

R P N Singh: Minister of state in the ministry of home

Panabaka Lakshmi: Minister of state in the ministry of textiles.

K J Surya Prakash Reddy: Minister of state in the ministry of railways

Ranee Narah: Minister of state in the ministry of tribal affairs

Adhir Ranjan Chowdhury: Minister of state in the ministry of railways

A H Khan Choudhury: Minister of state in the ministry of health and
family welfare

Sarvey Sathyanarayana: Minister of state in the ministry of road
transport and highways

Ninong Ering: Minister of state in the ministry of minority affairs

Deepa Dasmunsi: Minister of state in the ministry of culture

Porika Balram Naik: Minister of state in the ministry of social
justice and empowerment

Shri Kruparani Killi: Minister f state in the ministry of
communications and information technology

Lalchand Kataria: Minister of state in the ministry of defence

Namo Narain Meena: Minister of state in the ministry of finance

S S Palanimanickam: Minister of state in the ministry of finance

Preneet Kaur: Minister of state in the ministry of external affairs

Sisir Adhikari: Minister of state in the ministry of rural development

D Napoleon: Minister of state in the ministry of social justice and empowerment

S Gandhiselvan: Minister of state in the ministry of health and family welfare

Tusharbhai Chaudhary: Minister of state in the ministry of road
transport and highways

Prateek Prakashbapu Patil: Minister of state in the ministry of coal

Pradeep Jain: Minister of state in the ministry of rural development

Charan Das Mahant: Minister of state in the ministry of agriculture
minister of state in the ministry of food processing industries

Milind Deora: Minister of state in the ministry of communications and
information technology

Shashi Tharoor: Minister of state in the ministry of human resource development

Kodikunnil Suresh: Minister of state in the ministry of labour and employment

Tariq Anwar: Minister of state in the ministry of agriculture and food
processing industries.

Tuesday, October 23, 2012

World GK :List of MISS UNIVERSE (1952 - 2011)

Miss Universe 1952 - Armi Kuusela, Finland
Miss Universe 1953 - Christiane Martel, France
Miss Universe 1954 - Miriam Stevenson, USA
Miss Universe 1955 - Hellevi Rombin, Sweden
Miss Universe 1956 - Carol Morris, USA
Miss Universe 1957 - Gladys Zender, Peru
Miss Universe 1958 - Luz Marina Zuluaga, Columbia
Miss Universe 1959 - Akiko Kojima, Japan
Miss Universe 1960 - Linda Bement ,USA 

Miss Universe 1961 - Marlene Schmidt, Germany
Miss Universe 1962 - Norma Nolan, Argentina 
Miss Universe 1963 - Idea Maria Vargas, Brazil 
Miss Universe 1964 - Corinna Tsopei, Greece 
Miss Universe 1965 - Apasra Hongsakula, Thailand 
Miss Universe 1966 - Margareta Arvidsson, Sweden 
Miss Universe 1967 - Sylvia Hitchcock, USA 
Miss Universe 1968 - Martha Vasconcellos, Brazil 
Miss Universe 1969 - Gloria Diaz, Philippines 
Miss Universe 1970 - Marisol Malaret, Puerto Rico 
Miss Universe 1971 - Georgia Risk, Lebanon 
Miss Universe 1972 - Kerry Anne Wells ,Australia 
Miss Universe 1973 - Margarita Moran, Philippines 
Miss Universe 1974 - Amparo Munoz, Spain 
Miss Universe 1975 - Anne Marie Puhtamo, Finland 
Miss Universe 1976 - Rina Messinger, Israel 
Miss Universe 1977 - Janelle Commissiong, Trinidad & Tobago 
Miss Universe 1978 - Margaret Gardiner, South Africa 
Miss Universe 1979 - Maritza Sayalero, Venezuela 
Miss Universe 1980 - Shawn Weatherly, USA 
Miss Universe 1981 - Irene Saez, Venezuela 
Miss Universe 1982 - Karen Baldwin, Canada 
Miss Universe 1983 - Lorraine Downes, New Zealand 
Miss Universe 1984 - Yvonne Ryding, Sweden 
Miss Universe 1985 - Deborah Carthy-Deu, Puerto Rico 
Miss Universe 1986 - Barbara Palacios Teyde, Venezuela 
Miss Universe 1987 - Cecilia Bolocco, Chile 
Miss Universe 1988 - Porntip Nakhirunkanok, Thailand 
Miss Universe 1989 - Angela Visser, Holland 
Miss Universe 1990 - Mona Grudt, Norway 
Miss Universe 1991 - Lupita Jones, Mexico 
Miss Universe 1992 - Michelle McLean, Namibia 
Miss Universe 1993 - Dayanara Torres, Puerto Rico 
Miss Universe 1994 - Sushmita Sen, India 
Miss Universe 1995 - Chelsi Smith, USA
Miss Universe 1996 - Alicia Machado, Venezuela
Miss Universe 1997 - Brook Lee, USA
Miss Universe 1998 - Wendy Fitzwilliam, Trinidad & Tobago
Miss Universe 1999 - Mpule Kwelagobe, Botswana
Miss Universe 2000 - Lara Dutta, India
Miss Universe 2001 - Denise M. Quiñones, Puerto Rico
Miss Universe 2002 - Oksana Fyodorova, Russia
Miss Universe 2002 - Justine Pasek, Panama
Miss Universe 2003 - Amelia Vega Polanco, Dominican Republic
Miss Universe 2004 - Jennifer Hawkins, Australia
Miss Universe 2005 - Natalie Glebova, Canada
Miss Universe 2006 - Zuleyka Riviera Mendoza, Puerto Rico
Miss Universe 2007 - Riyo Mori, Japan
Miss Universe 2008 - Dayana Mendoza, Venezuela
Miss Universe 2009 - Stefanía Fernández, Venezuela
Miss Universe 2010 - Jimena Navarrete, Mexico
Miss Universe 2011 - Leila Lopes, Angola


1. Which of the following character istics is absent in a computer,
however sophisticated it may be?
1) High speed
2) Intelligence
3) Accuracy
4) Perfect Memory

2. Cultivation of the same piece of land more than once in a year is called?
1) Extensive cultivation
2) Mixed cultivation
3) Shifting Cultivation
4) Intensive cultivation

3. Which one of the following dyna- sties was famous for its maritime power?
1) Pallava
2) Pandya
3) Chola
4) Rashtrakutas

4. The National Anthem was first sung in the year?
1) 1911
2) 1913
3) 1914
4) 1915

5. Sarkaria Commission is associated with?
1) Centre-State relationship
2) Inter-State relationship
3) Election reforms
4) Freedom of Press

6. Who is the author of Poverty and Un-British Rule in India?
1) R.C. Dutt
2) V.K.R.V. Rao
3) Dadabhai Naoroji
4) Amartyasen

7. In India broadcasting was started in the year?
1) 1925
2) 1926
3) 1927
4) 1928

8. Which one of the following is a non-conventional energy resource?
1) Hydro electricity
2) Thermal power
3) Photovoltaic energy
4) Mineral oil

9. Sir Thomas Roe was sent by British to India during the reign of?
1) Akbar
2) Humayun
3) Jahangir
4) Babar

10. Cattle-borne powder is used as fertiliser as it is rich in?
1) Nitrogen
2) Phosphorus
3) Sodium
4) Potassium

11. Territorial waters of India extended upto?
1) 3 nautical miles
2) 9 nautical miles
3) 12 nautical miles
4) 15 nauitical miles

12. As an export item of India, which spice occupies the top position in value?
1) Pepper
2) Chillies
3) Turmeric
4) Cardamom

13. Among the following leaders, who had popularised the Ganapati
Festival Celebrations?
1) M.G. Ranade
2) Ferozeshah Mehta
3) Gopal Krishna Gokhale
4) Tilak

14. The metal which exists in liquid format in room temperature is?
1) Bromine
2) Lead
3) Mercury
4) Cadmium

15. The gas predominantly reponsible for global warming is?
1) Carban dioxide
2) Carbon monoxide
3) Nitrous oxide
4) Nitrogen peroxide

16. Who was the first woman President of the Indian National Congress?
1) Indira Gandhi
2) Sarojini Naidu
3) Vijayalakshmi Pandit
4) Rajkumari Amrit Kaur

17. The normal Haemoglobin levels in the blood in men are?
1) 10 gm per 100 ml blood
2) 16 gm per 100 ml blood
3) 13 gm per 100 ml blood
4) 18 gm per 100 ml blood

18. Disguised unemployment prevails in underdeveloped countries in
which of the following sectors?
1) Manufacturing industry
2) Agriculture
3) Services sector
4) Banking

19. Which one of the following is not a computer programming language?

20. Indias most modern medium range surface to air missile is?
1) Akash
2) Agni
3) Prithvi
4) Nag

21. Open Sky Policy means?
1) Opening the ozone layer
2) Artificial rain
3) Operation of both the private and public airways
4) Permission to foreign airlines

22. Common Wealth Games 2010 will be held in?
1) England
2) Australia
3) Myanmar
4) India

23. One will not have to pass through Suez Canal while going from Mumbai to?
1) Alxendria
2) Suez
3) Port Said
4) Benghazi

24. The animal adopted by World Wildlife Fund as its symbol is?
1) Bear
2) Tiger
3) Deer
4) Panda

25. Enzymes are?
1) Biological Catalysts
2) Body Builders
3) Body regulators
4) Body cell multipliers

26. According to Lord Keynes, interest rate is determined by the
supply and demand for?
1) savings
2) loanable funds
3) money
4) capital goods

27. Perfect market means there are?
1) many sellers and many buyers
2) a few sellers and a few buyers
3) a few sellers and many buyers
4) a few buyers and many sellers

28. Which physical property will be un-affected with increase in quantity?
1) Volume
2) Weight
3) Mass
4) Density

29. A Person Presses the earth least when he is?
1) sitting
2) standing
3) running
4) lying on the ground

30. Which of the following is most elastic?
1) Steel
2) Rubber
3) Silver
4) Glass
31. Tea will cool most easily in?
1) Metal cup
2) Porcelain cup
3) Glass cup
4) Clay cup

32. For safe driving during rain and fog, a driver should use?
1) Additional violet lights
2) Additional yellow lights
3) Additional red lights
4) Additional milky lights

33. The formation of rainbow is explained by?
1) Scattering of light
2) Total internal reflection and scattering of light
3) Suspension of dust particles in air
4) White light having seven colours

34. Television signals cannot be rece-ived ordinarily beyond a
particular distance due to?
1) Weakness of the signals
2) Weak antenna
3) Absorption of signals in the air
4) Curvature of the earth

35. We used the mach number in connection with?
1) sound
2) submarines
3) air craft
4) space craft

36. ....... determines the loudness of a sound?
1) Frequency
2) Amplitude
3) Speed
4) Wavelength

37. Which of the following electro-magnetic, magnetic waves has the
longest wave-length?
1) Ultroviolet
2) Light rays
3) Gamma rays
4) Infrared

38. The catalyst in the rusting of iron is?
1) Oxygen
2) Air
3) Nitrogen
4) Moisture

39. Common salt is obtained from sea water by the process of?
1) sublimation
2) evaporation
3) crystallisation
4) distillation
40. The element present in the largest amount in rocks and minerals is?
1) silicon
2) carbon
3) hydrogen
4) gold

41. For plant growth, the most impor tant compound are made up of?
1) carbon
2) nitrogen
3) sodium
4) sulphur

42. The main use of salt in the diet is to?
1) make the taste of food better
2) produce in small amounts the hydrochloric acid required for digestion
3) ease the process of cooking
4) increase the solubility of food particles in water

43. What is enriched Uranium?
1) Uranium 235
2) U238
3) Uranium that has been exposed to intense radiation
4) Natural uranium which has been with U235

44. Hydrophobia may affect a person suffering from?
1) Snake bite
2) Dog bite
3) Bacterial infection
4) Bee sting

45. Iron, necessary for the body, is abundantly found in?
1) Egg
2) Green vegetables
3) Milk
4) Cauliflower

46. The purpose of growing plants along river banks is to prevent?
1) heavy rainfall
2) seepage of water underground
3) siltage and floods
4) pollution

47. Mark the correct statement : The Skin?
1) keeps the heat out
2) gives shape to the body
3) protects us from cold
4) serves as a secretory organ

48. Which of the following fertilizers is used after sowing the seeds?
1) Nitrate
2) Potash
3) Green manure
4) Phosphorus


1-2; 2-4; 3-3; 4-1; 5-1; 6-3; 7-3; 8-3; 9-3; 10-2;
11-3; 12-1; 13-4; 14-3; 15-1; 16-2; 17-2; 18-2; 19-4; 20-1;
21-3; 22-4; 23-2; 24-4; 25-1; 26-3; 27-1; 28-4; 29-4; 30-4;
31-1; 32-2; 33-2; 34-4; 35-3, 36-2; 37-4; 38-4; 39-2; 40-1;
41-2; 42-2; 43-4; 44-2; 45-2, 46-3; 47-2; 48-1

World Gk :List of Miss World (1951-2012)

Miss World 1951 - Kiki Haakonson, Sweden
Miss World 1952 - May Louise Flodin, Sweden
Miss World 1953 - Denise Perrier, France
Miss World 1954 - Antigone Costanda, Egypt
Miss World 1955 - Carmen Zubillaga, Venezuela
Miss World 1956 - Petra Schurmann, Germany
Miss World 1957 - Marita Lindahl, Finland
Miss World 1958 - Penelope Coelen, South Africa
Miss World 1959 - Corine Rottschafer, Holland
Miss World 1960 - Norma Cappagli, Argentina
Miss World 1961 - Rosemarie Frankland, United Kingdom
Miss World 1962 - Catharine Lodders, Holland
Miss World 1963 - Carole Crawford, Jamaica
Miss World 1964 - Ann Sidney, United Kingdom
Miss World 1965 - Lesley Langley, United Kingdom
Miss World 1966 - Reita Faria, India
Miss World 1967 - Madeiline Hartog Bel, Peru
Miss World 1968 - Penelope Plummer, Australia
Miss World 1969 - Eva Reuber Staier, Austria
Miss World 1970 - Jennifer Hosten, Grenada
Miss World 1971 - Lucia Petterle, Brazil
Miss World 1972 - Belina Green, Australia
Miss World 1973 - Marjorie Wallace, USA
Miss World 1974 - Anneline Kriel, South Africa
Miss World 1975 - Winelia Merced, Puerto Rico
Miss World 1976 - Cindy Breakspeare, Jamaica
Miss World 1977 - Mary Stavin, Sweden
Miss World 1978 - Silvana Suarez, Argentina
Miss World 1979 - Gina Swainson, Bermuda
Miss World 1980 - Kimberly Santos, Guam
Miss World 1981 - Pilin Leon, Venezuela
Miss World 1982 - Mariasela Lebron, Dominican Republic
Miss World 1983 - Sarah Jane Hutt, United Kingdom
Miss World 1984 - Astrid Herrera, Venezuela
Miss World 1985 - Hofi Karlsdottir, Iceland
Miss World 1986 - Giselle Laronde, Trinidad
Miss World 1987 - Ulla Weigerstorfer, Austria
Miss World 1988 - Linda Petursdottir, Iceland
Miss World 1989 - Andeta Kreglicka, Poland
Miss World 1990 - Gina Marie Tolleson, USA
Miss World 1991 - Ninebeth Jiminez, Venezuela
Miss World 1992 - Julia Kourotchkina, Russia
Miss World 1993 - Lisa Hanna, Jamaica
Miss World 1994 - Aishwariya Rai, India
Miss World 1995 - Jacqueline Aquilera, Venezuela
Miss World 1996 - Irene Skliva ,Greece
Miss World 1997 - Diana Hayden, India
Miss World 1998 - Linor Abargil, Israel
Miss World 1999 - Yukta Mookhey, India
Miss World 2000 - Priyanka Chopra, India
Miss World 2001 - Ibiagbanidokibubo Asenite Darego—Nigeria
Miss World 2002 - Azra Akin—Turkey
Miss World 2003 - Rosanna Davidson, Ireland
Miss World 2004 - Maria Julia Mantilla Garcia, Peru
Miss World 2005 - Unnur Birna Vilhjalmsdottir, Iceland
Miss World 2006 - Tat'ana Kucharova, Czech Republic
Miss World 2007 - Zhang Zhi Li, China PR
Miss World 2008 - Ksenia Sukhinova, Russia
Miss World 2009 - Kaiane Aldorino, Gibraltar
Miss World 2010 - Alexandria Mills, USA
Miss World 2011 - Ivian Sarcos, Venezuela
Miss World 2012 - Wenxia Yu won, China

Friday, October 12, 2012

Nobel Prize Winners 2012 :Literature

Nobel Prize in Literature 2012

Mo Yan, the Chinese author, won the 2012 Nobel Prize in Literature with the motivation "who with hallucinatory realism merges folk tales, history and the contemporary" the Swedish Academy said in Stockholm.

The Nobel Prize for Literature from 2001 to 2011 is listed below:

2011  Tomas Tranströmer
2010 Mario Vargas Llosa
2009 Herta Müller
2008 Jean-Marie Gustave Le Clézio
2007 Doris Lessing

2006 Orhan Pamuk
2005 Harold Pinter
2004 Elfriede Jelinek
2003 John M. Coetzee
2002 Imre Kertész
2001 Sir Vidiadhar Surajprasad Naipaul

Nobel prize 2012 Winners : Chemistry

This Year (2012) The Nobel Prize in Chemistry was given to Americans
Robert J Lefkowitz and Brian K Kobilka have for their work on
G-protein-coupled receptors, which allow cells to sense light,
flavour, odour and receive signals from hormones and neurotransmitters
, reports the Guardian

Robert Joseph Lefkowitz (born April 15, 1943) is an American
physician-scientist best known for his work with G protein-coupled
receptors for which he won the 2012 Nobel Prize for Chemistry. He
shared this award with Brian Kobilka.(wikipedia)

Brian Kent Kobilka (born 1955) is an American Nobel Prize winning
professor in the departments of Molecular and Cellular Physiology at
Stanford University School of Medicine. He is also the co-founder of
ConfometRx, a biotechnology company focusing on G protein-coupled
receptors. He was named a member of the National Academy of Sciences
in 2011.(wikipedia)

International Cricket Council’s prestigious awards 2012

ICC Awards 2012

The International Cricket Council's prestigious awards (popularly known as the ICC Awards) for the year 2012 were presented at the ninth annual ICC Awards ceremony held in Colombo, Sri Lanka on 15thSeptember, 2012

India's Virat Kohli was named the ODI Cricketer of the Year, while Sri Lanka's Kumar Sangakkara walked away with three honours, including the Test Cricketer of the year

During the period under consideration, the 23-year-old Kohli played 31 ODIs and compiled 1,733 runs at an outstanding average of 66.65, including eight centuries and six half-centuries

His highest score of 183 came against Pakistan in an Asia Cup match on 18th March, 2012

ICC Cricketer of the year (Sir Garfield Sobers Trophy)-Kumar Sangakkara (Sri Lanka)

LG People's Choice-Kumar Sangakkara (Sri Lanka)

ICC Test Cricketer of the Year-Kumar Sangakkara (Sri Lanka)

ICC Spirit of Cricket Award-Daniel Vettori (New Zealand)

ICC ODI Cricketer of the year-Virat Kohli (India)

ICC Associate and Affiliate Cricketer of the year-George Dockrell (Ireland)

ICC Women's ODI Cricketer of the year-Stafanie Taylor (West Indies)

ICC Twenty20 International Performance of the year-Richard Levi (South Africa)

ICC T20 Women's Cricketer of the year-Sarah Taylor (England)

ICC Umpire of the year (David Shepherd Trophy)-Kumar Dharmasena (Sri Lanka)

Monday, October 8, 2012

GK - Objective Questions and Answers

Q.The idea of Lokpal is taken from
 4Scandinavian countries
  Ans: 4
Q.During whose reign did Chengiz Khan attack India's borders in pursuit of Jalaluddin?
 2Qutb-ud-din Aibak
 3Nasiruddin Khusrau
  Ans: 1
Q.'Satyameva Jayate', engraved on the Indian emblem is taken from
 1Rig Veda
 2Bhagavad Gita
  Ans: 3
Q.Which country is following One Party System?
  Ans: 2
Q.The mountains which are not a part of the Himalayan chain:
  Ans: 2
Q.The famous ruler of ancient India who, towards the end of his life, is said to have converted to Jainism, was
  Ans: 1
Q.What is the other name for Vit. B2?
  Ans: 4
Q.Cockroach cannot survive in the water because it's respiratory organ is
 2Book lung
 4Pulmonary Sac
  Ans: 3
Q.Chromosomes consist of
 1DNA and lipids
 2RNA and amino acids
 3RNA and sugar
 4DNA and proteins
  Ans: 4
Q.The yellow colour of urine is due to the presence of
  Ans: 2

Read More:

Sunday, October 7, 2012

gk questions

1. Chalukya dynasty in South India was founded by
Pulakesin I
2. Which control the amount of Calcium in blood?
3. The main component of LPG are
propane and butane
4.  ‘Dasakumar Charitam’ was composed by
5. Who discovered Radiocarbon dating
Willard Franck Libby
6. Jantar Mandir in …………is recently included in the list of World Heritage
7. You can……….with the help of CD
read and write
8. United Nations University is in
9. The first person to win the Pak Strait Ocean Swimming Contest?
Baidyanata Nath
10. Which has highest boiling point
11. In the sixth and fifth centuries B.C., the most remarkable king of the Haryanka line was
12. When was ILO awarded the Nobel Prize for peace?
13. Potato is an underground modified stem referred to as
14. —— mixed with liquid hydrogen is used as a fuel for rockets
liquid oxygen
15. The first athelete from Kerala to get Dhrona Charya Award?
O.M. Nambiar
16. ____ the election there was great excitement in the school.
in view of
17. In spite of being well-read, he ______common sense.
18. Trachoma is a disease of the
19. Who is the first woman to head the Amnesty International?
20. The first Mughal building to have been built entirely of marble is
Taj Mahal

Google's Doodle on the 127th birthday of Niels Bohr and all about Niels Bohr

To mark the 127th birthday of Niels Bohr, Google today posted a doodle on its homepage. But who was was Niels Bohr?

Niels Bohr was a Danish physicist, who was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physics 1922 "for his services in the investigation of the structure of atoms and of the radiation emanating from them". Niels Henrik David Bohr was born in Copenhagen on October 7, 1885. His father, Christian Bohr was a Professor of Physiology at Copenhagen University.

Earlier in 1910, Niels Bohr had met Margrethe Norlund, sister of the mathematician Niels Erik Norlund. They tied the know in Copenhagen in 1912. In 1922, Bohr was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physics. In 1927, Heisenberg developed his uncertainty principle, while working on the mathematical foundations of quantum mechanics.

The Niels Bohr 127th birthday Google doodle showcases his contributions to science and shows the Bohr atomic model.
Who was Niels Bohr?

During World War II Bohr, fearing arrest by the Germans, escaped to Britain from where he went to the US to work on the Manhattan Project at the Los Alamos laboratory in New Mexico. The Manhattan Project lead to the development of the first atom bomb.

Following the war Bohr returned to Copenhagen. He continued to preach the peaceful use of nuclear energy.

Niels Bohr died in Copenhagen on November 18, 1962. His son, Aage Bohr, was also awarded the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1975.

The Niels Bohr 127th birthday Google doodle showcases his contributions to science and shows the Bohr atomic model. This model introduced by Bohr in 1913, was a radical departure from earlier descriptions of the atom and showed the atom as one with a small nucleus surrounded by electrons that travel in circular orbits in a structure similar to the solar system, with electrostatic forces providing attraction, not gravity.

Thursday, October 4, 2012

study material for GS :All about Nirmal Bharat Abhiyan

Planning Comm allocates Rs 36,000 crore for sanitation

Seeking to give a big boost to sanitation in rural areas, Planning
Commission has allocated a Rs 3,6000 crores for the 12th Five Year
Plan, up from Rs 7800 Crore in the previous Plan.

Rural Development Minister Jairam Ramesh, who is also in-charge of the
Ministry for Drinking Water and Sanitation, said the Planning
Commission's decision "reflects the priority UPA government places on
sanitation in rural India".

Noting that 60 percent of open defecation in the world are in India
and "it is a matter of continuing anguish, shame for all citizens",
Ramesh said government has vowed to achieve total sanitation in the
country in the next 10 years.

He was briefing the media after the Cabinet Committee on Economic
Affairs on Thursday gave the nod for more than doubling the amount for
construction of individual household latrines from existing Rs 4600 to
nearly 10,000 rupees and also scrapped the distinction of BPL/APL
families to achieve total sanitation target in 10 years.

The total sanitation campaign will now be known as Nirmal Bharat
Abhiyan, Ramesh said.

Chief Ministers of Uttar Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh, Bihar, Chhattisgarh,
Haryana and Punjab have demanded fair allocation for achieving the
sanitation goals, Ramesh said.

At present, out of Rs 3400 allocated for individual toilets, the
Centre gives Rs 2100, each state's share is Rs 1000 and Rs 300 comes
from the beneficiaries, while Rs 1200 is leveraged through MGNREGA
works as was approved last year.

But after the cabinet approval today, the Centre has to dole out Rs
3200, the state Rs 1400 and families have to provide Rs 900 while
MGNREGA funds will be to the tune of Rs 4500.

Ramesh said Prime Minister Manmohan Singh laid stress on linking
sanitation programme in 200 such districts where the problem of
malnutrition is acute saying there is a close link between lack of
hygiene and malnutrition.

The cabinet also made toilet construction mandatory for availing funds
for Indira Aawas Yojana henceforth. The Minister added that allocation
for IAY will also be raised from existing Rs 45,000 to Rs 75,000 by
end of July.

"I hope there will be a new impetus to sanitation. The Prime Minister
has made one point....he underscored the importance of evaluating how
these programmes are actually doing on the ground," Ramesh said.

He said that for the first time solid and liquid waste management has
been approved for villages on the model of towns and cities and gram
panchayats will get from Rs 7 lakhto Rs 20 lakh for the same depending
on the size of the population.

Noting that Sikkim has become the first Nirmal Rajya (that is 100
percent open defecation free), Ramesh said this year Kerala and
Himachal Pradesh will also follow suit.

While Haryana has resolved to achieve the target in next two years,
Punjab in next five years, and the rest of the states in 10 years
time, he added.

Study Material :Marketing Terms for IBPS PO Exam

Above the line: "Above the Line" is the term commonly used for advertising for which a payment is made and for which commission is paid to the advertising agency. Methods of above the line advertising include television and radio, magazines, newspapers and Internet.

Ad hoc market research: Ad-hoc research focuses on specific marketing problems. It involves the collection of data at one point in time from one sample of respondents.

Added value: Added value refers to the increase in worth of a product or service as a result of a particular activity.  In the context of marketing, the added value is provided by features and benefits over and above those representing the "core product".

Ad-Valorem Duties: These are the duties determined as a certain percentage of prices of the product.

AIDA:  Attention Interest Desire Action

AIFI: All India Financial Institution

ALCO: Asset-Liability Management Committee

ALM: Asset/ liability management involves a set of techniques to create value and manage risks in a bank.

Ambush marketing: A deliberate attempt by a business or brand to associate itself with an event (often a sporting event) in order to gain some of the benefits associated with being an official sponsor without incurring the costs of sponsorship

AMC: Asset Management Committee

Annual Financial Statement: It is a statement of receipts and expenditure of states for the financial year, presented to Parliament by the government. It is divided into three parts: Consolidated Fund, Contingency Fund and Public Account.

Appropriation Bill: It is presented to Parliament for its approval, so that the government can withdraw from the Consolidated Fund the amounts required for meeting the expenditure charged on the Consolidated Fund. No amount can be withdrawn from the Consolidated Fund till the Appropriation Bill is voted is enacted.

Appropriation Bill: This Bill is like a green signal enabling the withdrawal of money from the Consolidated Fund to pay off expenses. These are instruments that Parliament clears after the demand for grants has been voted by the Lok Sabha.

Augmented brand: The additional customer services and benefits ("added value") that are built around the core product or service offering

Balance Of Payments: The difference between demand and supply of a country's currency in the foreign exchange market.

Balance Of Trade: The difference between monetary value of exports and imports of output in an economy over a certain period of time. It is the relationship between a nation's imports and exports.

Banking Cash Transaction Tax (BCTT): BCTT is a small tax on cash withdrawal from bank exceeding a particular amount in a single day. The basic idea is to curb the black economy and generate a record of big cash transactions. This tax was introduced in 2005-06 budget.

Behavioural Segmentation: Behavioural segmentation divides customers into groups based on the way they respond to, use or know of a product.

Bond: A negotiable instrument evidencing debt, under which the issuer promises to pay the holder its face value plus interest as agreed.

Brand building: Developing a brand's image and standing with a view to creating long term benefits for brand awareness and brand value

Brand equity: Brand equity refers to the value of a brand. Brand equity is based on the extent to which the brand has high brand loyalty, name awareness, perceived quality and strong product associations. Brand equity also includes other "intangible" assets such as patents, trademarks and channel relationships.

Brand extension: Brand extension refers to the use of a successful brand name to launch a new or modified product in a new market. Virgin is perhaps the best example of how brand extension can be applied into quite diverse and distinct markets.

Brand image: Brand image refers to the set of beliefs that customers hold about a particular brand. These are important to develop well since a negative brand image can be very difficult to shake off.

Brand loyalty: A strongly motivated and long standing decision to purchase a particular product or service

Budget estimates: It is an estimate of Fiscal Deficit and Revenue Deficit for the year. The term is associated with estimates of the Center's spending during the financial year and income received as proceeds of tax revenues

Budgetary Deficit: Such a situation arises when expenses exceed revenues. Here the entire budgetary exercise falls short of allocating enough funds to a certain area.

Business to business: Marketing activity directed from one business to another (as opposed to a consumer). This term is often shortened to "B2B"

businesses communicating with customers.

Capital Budget: Capital Budget keeps track of the government's capital receipts and payments. This accounts for market loans, borrowings from the Reserve Bank and other institutions through sale of Treasury Bills, loans acquired from foreign governments and recoveries of loans granted by the Central government to State governments and Union Territories.

Capital Budget: It consists of capital receipts and payments. It also incorporates transactions in the Public Account. It has two components: Capital Receipt and Capital Expenditure.

Capital budget: The list of planned capital expenditures prepared usually annually Capital Gain and Loss. The difference between the price that is originally paid for a security and cash proceeds at the time of maturity (face value of bond) or at the time of sale (selling price of a bond or stock).  When the difference is positive, it is a gain, but when it is negative, it is a loss.

Capital Expenditure: It consists of payments for acquisition of assets like land, buildings, machinery, equipment, as also investments in shares etc, and loans and advances granted by the Central government to state and union territory governments, government companies, corporations and other parties.

Capital expenditure: Long-term in nature they are used for acquiring fixed assets such as land, building, machinery and equipment. Other items that also fall under this category include, loans and advances sanctioned by the Center to the State governments, union territories and public sector undertakings.

Capital Goods: Goods used in the manufacturing of finished products

Capital investments: Money used to purchase permanent fixed assets for a business, such as machinery, land or buildings as opposed to day-to-day operating expenses.

Capital Market: Market in which financial instruments are bought and sold.

Capital Payments: Expenses incurred on acquisition of capital assets

Capital Receipt: Capital Receipts consist of loans raised by the Center from the market, government borrowings from the RBI & other parties, sale of Treasury Bills and loans received from foreign governments. Other items that also fall under this category include recovery of loans granted by the Center to State governments & Union Territories and proceeds from the dilution of the government's stake in Public Sector Undertakings.

Capital Receipt: The main items of capital receipts are loans raised by the government from public which are called market loans, borrowings by the government from the Reserve Bank of India and other parties through sale of Treasury Bills, loans received from foreign governments and bodies and recoveries of loans granted by the Central government to state and union territory governments and other parties. It also includes proceeds from disinvestment of government equity in public enterprises.

Capital Structure: The composition of a firm's long-term financing consisting of equity, preference shares, and long-term debt.

Capital: Funds invested in a firm by the owners for use in conducting the business.

CCI: Competition Commission of India

Central Plan Outlay: It refers to the government's budgetary support to the Plan. It is the division of monetary resources among different sectors in the economy and ministries of the government.

CENVAT: This is a replacement for the earlier MODVAT scheme and is meant for reducing the cascade effect of indirect taxes on finished products. This is more extensive scheme with most goods brought under its preview

CESS: This is an additional levy on the basic tax liability. Governments resort to cess for meeting specific expenditure. For instance, both corporate and individual income is at present subject to an education cess of 2%. In the last Budget, the government had imposed another 1% cess as secondary and higher education cess on income tax to finance secondary and higher education.

Cognitive dissonance: Cognitive dissonance is an customer effect commonly observed after a major purchase whereby the customer feels uncertainty about whether the purchase should have been made. Post-purchase promotion (particularly advertising) has a role to play to reduce the incidence and effect of cognitive dissonance

Combination brand: A combination brand name brings together a family brand name and an individual brand name. The idea here is to provide some association for the product with a strong family brand name but maintaining some distinctiveness so that customers know what they are getting

Competitive advantage: A competitive advantage is a clear performance differential over the competition on factors that are important to customers

Competitor benchmarking: Competitor benchmarking compares customer satisfaction with the products, services and relationships of the business with those of key competitors

Consolidated Fund: This is one big reservoir where the government pools all its funds together. The fund includes all government revenues, loans raised and recoveries of loans granted.

Marketing: The all-embracing function that links the business with customer needs and wants in order to get the right product to the right place at the right time"

Minimum Alternate Tax (MAT): It's known that a company pays tax on profits as per the Income-Tax Act. If a company's tax liability is less than 10% of its profits, it has to pay a minimum alternate tax of 10% of the book profits.

MODVAT: It stands for Modified Value Added Tax and is a way of giving some relief to the final manufacturers of goods on Excise Duties borne by their suppliers.

Monetized Deficit: Measures the level of support the RBI provides to the Centre's borrowing program.

National Debt: Total outstanding borrowings of the central government exchequer.

Non-Plan Expenditure: Expenses that don't form a part of the government's five year plan. These expenses consist of Revenue and Capital Expenditure on interest payments, Defense Expenditure, subsidies, postal deficit, police, pensions, economic services, loans to public sector enterprises and loans as well as grants to State governments, Union territories and foreign governments.

Non-Tax Revenue: Any loan given to state governments, public institutions, PSUs come with a price (interests) and forms the most important receipts under this head apart from dividends and profits received from PSUs. The government also earns from the various services including public services it provides.

Peak Rate: it is the highest rate of Custom Duty applicable on an item.

Per capita income: The national income of a country, or region, divided by its population.

Performance Budget: it is a compilation of programs and activities of different ministries and departments.

Plan Expenditure: Consists of both Revenue Expenditure and Capital Expenditure of the Center on the Central Plan, Central Assistance to States and Union Territories.

Plan Outlay: Plan Outlay is the amount for expenditure on projects, schemes and programmes announced in the Plan. The money for the Plan Outlay is raised through budgetary support and internal and extra-budgetary resources. The budgetary support is also shown as plan expenditure in government accounts.

Primary Deficit: Fiscal Deficit minus Interest payments

Product life cycle: The course of a product's sales and profitability over its lifetime. The model describes five stages, each of which represents a different opportunity for the marketer:  - Development, Introduction, Growth, Maturity, Decline.

Product: A product is defined as anything that is capable of satisfying customer

Progressive Tax Structure: a tax structure in which the marginal tax rate increases as the level of income increases.

Promotion: One of the four "P's" of the marketing mix. Promotion is all about

Proportional Tax: a tax taking the same percentage of income regardless of the level of income.

Public Account: it is an account where money received through transactions not relating to consolidated fund is kept.

Public Debt: The difference between borrowings and repayments during the year is the net accretion to the public debt. Public debt can be split into two heads, internal debt (money borrowed within the country) and external debt (funds borrowed from non-Indian sources).

Regressive Tax: a tax in which the poor pay a larger percentage of income than the rich. It is the opposite of Progressive Tax.

Repo (Repurchase) rate: It is the rate at which the RBI lends shot-term money to the banks against securities. When the repo rate increases borrowing from RBI becomes more expensive.  Therefore, we can say that in case,  RBI wants to make it more expensive for the banks to borrow money, it increases the repo rate; similarly, if it wants to make it cheaper for banks to borrow money, it reduces the repo rate.

Revenue budget: Consists of Revenue Receipts and Revenue Expenditure of the government.

Revenue Deficit: It is the difference between Revenue Expenditure and Revenue Receipts.

Revenue Surplus: Opposite of Revenue Deficit, it is the excess of Revenue Receipts over Revenue Expenditure.

Reverse Repo rate is the rate at which banks park their short-term excess liquidity with the RBI.  The banks use this tool when they feel that they are stuck with excess funds and are not able to invest anywhere for reasonable returns. An increase in the reverse repo rate means that the RBI is ready to borrow money from the banks at a higher rate of interest. As a result, banks would prefer to keep more and more surplus funds with RBI.

Revised Estimates: usually given in the following budget, it is the difference between the Budget Estimates and the actual figures.

SEBI: Securities and Exchange Board of India

Securities Transaction Tax (STT): STT is a small tax you need to pay on the total amount you pay or receive in a share deal. In the 2004-05 Budget, the government did away with the tax on profits earned on the sale of shares held for over a year (known as long-term capital gains tax) and replaced it with STT.

SLR: Statutory Liquidity Ratio. Every bank is required to maintain at the close of business every day, a minimum proportion of their Net Demand and Time Liabilities as liquid assets in the form of cash, gold and un-encumbered approved securities. The ratio of liquid assets to demand and time liabilities is known as Statutory Liquidity Ratio (SLR).  RBI is empowered to increase this ratio up to 40%.  An increase in SLR  also restrict the bank's leverage position to pump more money into the economy

Special Economic Zone Scheme: A new export promotion scheme entitled 'Special Economic Zone' (SEZ) was introduced in the Export and Import (EXIM) Policy which came into effect from 1.4.2000. The Scheme envisages a simple and transparent policy and procedure for promotion of exports with minimum paper work. The most important feature of the Scheme is that the SEZ area is considered essentially as a foreign territory for the purposes of trade operations, duties & tariffs. Therefore, goods supplied to SEZ from the Domestic Tariff Area (DTA) are treated as deemed exports and goods brought from SEZ to DTA are treated as imported goods.

Subsidies: Financial aid provided by the Center to individuals or a group of individuals to be competitive. The grant of subsidies is also aimed at improving their skills of those who benefit from the subsidies.

Subvention: This is how a government bears the loss that financial institutions incur when asked to give farmer loans below the market rates.

Surcharge: This is an extra bit of 10% on the tax liability that individuals pay for earning more than Rs. 10 lakh. Companies with revenue of up to Rs. 1 crore are spared.

TRAI: Telecom Regulatory Authority of India

Treasury Bill (T-BILLS): These are bonds (debt securities) with maturity of less than a year. These are issued to meet short-term mismatches in receipts and expenditure.

VAT: This tax is based on the difference between the value of output and the value of inputs used to produce it. The aim here is to tax a firm only for the value it adds to the manufacturing inputs, and not the entire input cost. Thus, VAT helps avoid a cascading of taxes as a product passes through different stages of production/value addition.

Vote On Account: It is a sort of interim budget where the government presents accounts required to keep the process on until the next government takes over.

Ways And Means Advance (WMA): RBI is the banker for both Central and State governments. Hence, it provides a breather to manage mismatches in their receipts and payments in the form of ways and means advances.

What is the Union Budget?: The Union Budget is the annual report of India as a country. It contains the government of India's revenue and expenditure for the end of a particular fiscal year, which runs from April 1 to March 31. The Union Budget is the most extensive account of the government's finances, in which revenues from all sources and expenses of all activities undertaken are aggregated. It comprises the revenue budget and the capital budget. It also contains estimates for the next fiscal year.

Wholesale Price Index: Prices of goods that are dealt with wholesale (mostly inputs to production, rather than finished commodities).

Consumer buyers: Consumer buyers are those who purchase items for their personal consumption

Consumer durables: Consumer durables have low volume but high unit value. Consumer durables are often further divided into White goods (e.g. fridge freezers; cookers; dishwashers; microwaves) and Brown goods (e.g. DVD players; games consoles; personal computers)

Consumer markets: Consumer markets are the markets for products and services bought by individuals for their own or family use

Consumer Price Index: It is a price index covering the prices of consumer goods.

Consumer Price Index: It is a price index that features the rates of consumer goods

Contingency Fund: It is more or less similar to that extra little bit of savings that all mothers set aside in case of an emergency. Likewise, the government has created this fund to help it tide over difficult situations. The fund is at the disposal of the President to meet unforeseen and urgent expenditure, pending approval from Parliament. The amount that is withdrawn from the fund is recouped.

Continuous market research: Continuous research involves interviewing the same sample of people, repeatedly

Core product: The set of problem-solving or need-meeting benefits that customers are buying when they purchase a product. Customers are rarely prepared to pay a premium for these elements of a product.

Countervailing Duties (CVD): This is levied on imports that may lead to price rise in the domestic market. It is imposed with the intention of discouraging unfair trading practices by other countries.

CRR means Cash Reserve Ratio. Banks in India are required to hold a certain proportion of their deposits in the form of cash. However, actually Banks don't hold these as cash with themselves, but deposit such case with Reserve Bank of India (RBI)/ currency chests, which is considered as equivalent to holding cash with RBI. This minimum ratio (that is the part of the total deposits to be held as cash) is stipulated by the RBI and is known as the CRR or Cash Reserve Ratio. Thus, when a bank's deposits increase by Rs 100, and if the cash reserve ratio is 6%, the banks will have to hold additional Rs 6 with RBI and Bank will be able to use only Rs 94 for investments and lending/ credit purpose. Therefore, higher the ratio (i.e. CRR), the lower is the amount that banks will be able to use for lending and investment. This power of RBI to reduce the lendable amount by increasing the CRR, makes it an instrument in the hands of a central bank through which it can control the amount that banks lend. Thus, it is a tool used by RBI to control liquidity in the banking system.

Current Account Deficit: This deficit shows the difference between the nation's exports and imports.

Current Account Surplus: Excess of receipts over expenditure on current account in a country's balance of payments.

Custom Duties: These duties are levied on goods whenever they are either brought into the country or exported from the country. The importer or the exporter pays custom duties.

Customer demand: Consumer demand is a want for a specific product supported by an ability and willingness to pay for it.

Customer loyalty: Feelings or attitudes that incline a customer either to return to a company, shop or outlet to purchase there again, or else to re-purchase a particular product, service or brand.

Demand For Grants: It is a statement of estimate of expenditure from the Consolidated Fund. This requires approval of the Lok Sabha.

Direct marketing: The planned recording, analysis and tracking of customer behaviour to develop a relational marketing strategies

Direct Taxes: Taxes paid directly by the person or organisation on whom they are levied. Income Tax and Corporate Tax fall under this tax category

Disinvestment: It is the dilution of government's stake in Public Sector Undertakings.

Early adopters: People who choose new products carefully and are often consulted by people from the remaining adopter categories

ECB: External Commercial Borrowing

E-commerce: The use of technologies such as the Internet, electronic data exchange and industry extranets to streamline business transactions

Endorsement: The promotion of some kind of product recommendation or affirmation, usually from a celebrity, implying to the potential customer that a product is good

ESPO: Employee Stock Option Loan

Excise duties: These duties refer to duties imposed on goods manufactured within the country.

Finance Bill: It is the government's proposals for imposition of new taxes, modification of the existing tax structure or continuance of the existing tax structure beyond the period approved by Parliament.

Fiscal Deficit: It is the difference between the Revenue Receipts and Total Expenditure.

Fiscal Policy: Fiscal policy is a change in government expenditure and/or taxation designed to influence economic activity. These changes are designed to control the level of aggregate demand in the economy. Governments usually bring about changes in taxation, volume of spending, and size of the budget deficit or surplus to affect public expenditure.

FRBM Act: Enacted in 2003, the Fiscal Responsibility and Budget Management Act required the elimination of revenue deficit by 2008-09. This means that from 2008-09, the government was to meet all its revenue expenditure from its revenue receipts. Any borrowing was to be done to meet capital expenditure i.e. repayment of loans, lending and fresh investment. The Act also mandates a 3% limit on the fiscal deficit after 2008-09; one that allows the government to build capacities in the economy without compromising on fiscal stability.

Fringe Benefit Tax (FBT): It is the tax levied on the 'fringe benefit' / perks given by a company to its employees. Companies could no longer get away with marking such expenses as 'ordinary business expenses' and escape tax when they actually gave out club memberships to their employees. Employers had to now pay a tax (FBT) on a percentage of the expense incurred on such perquisites. This tax was introduced in the 2005-06 budget.

Gender segmentation: The segmentation of markets based on the sex of the customer. The cosmetic industry is a good example of widespread use of gender segmentation, Geographic segmentation, Geographic segmentation divides markets into different geographical units

Gross Domestic Product: Total market value of the goods and services manufactured within the country in a financial year. GROSS NATIONAL PRODUCT Total market value of the finished goods and services manufactured within the country in a given financial year, plus income earned by the local residents from investments made abroad, minus the income earned by foreigners in the domestic market.

Growth stage: The stage at which a product's sales rise rapidly and profits reach a

GST: A GST (Goods and Services Tax) contains the entire element of tax borne by a good / service including a Central and a state-level tax.

Income Tax: This is the tax levied on individual income from various sources like salaries, investments, interest, etc.

Indirect Taxes: Taxes imposed on goods manufactured, imported or exported such as Excise Duties and Custom Duties.

Inflation: A progressive increase in prices of goods and services. It is the percentage rate of change in the price level. In inflation, everything tends to appear more valuable except money.

Internal marketing: The process of eliciting support for a company and its activities among its own employees, in order to encourage them to promote its goals. This process can happen at a number of levels, from increasing awareness of individual products or marketing campaigns, to explaining overall business strategy.

Laggards: The group of consumers who are typically last to buy a new product

Marginal Standing Facility Rate:  Under this scheme, Banks will be able to borrow upto 1% of their respective Net Demand and Time Liabilities".  The rate of interest on the amount accessed from this facility will be 100 basis points (i.e. 1%)  above the repo rate. This scheme is likely to reduce volatility in the overnight rates and improve monetary transmission.

Market segmentation: Segmentation involves subdividing markets, channels or customers into groups with different needs, to deliver tailored propositions which meet these needs as precisely as possible.

Market targeting: Market targeting is the process of evaluating each market segment and selecting the most attractive segments to enter with a particular product or product line.

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