The Australian club registered an all-round performance to remain unbeaten in the tournament.
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The Australian club registered an all-round performance to remain unbeaten in the tournament.
The International Cricket Council's prestigious awards (popularly known as the ICC Awards) for the year 2012 were presented at the ninth annual ICC Awards ceremony held in Colombo, Sri Lanka on 15thSeptember, 2012
India's Virat Kohli was named the ODI Cricketer of the Year, while Sri Lanka's Kumar Sangakkara walked away with three honours, including the Test Cricketer of the year
During the period under consideration, the 23-year-old Kohli played 31 ODIs and compiled 1,733 runs at an outstanding average of 66.65, including eight centuries and six half-centuries
His highest score of 183 came against Pakistan in an Asia Cup match on 18th March, 2012
ICC Cricketer of the year (Sir Garfield Sobers Trophy)-Kumar Sangakkara (Sri Lanka)
LG People's Choice-Kumar Sangakkara (Sri Lanka)
ICC Test Cricketer of the Year-Kumar Sangakkara (Sri Lanka)
ICC Spirit of Cricket Award-Daniel Vettori (New Zealand)
ICC ODI Cricketer of the year-Virat Kohli (India)
ICC Associate and Affiliate Cricketer of the year-George Dockrell (Ireland)
ICC Women's ODI Cricketer of the year-Stafanie Taylor (West Indies)
ICC Twenty20 International Performance of the year-Richard Levi (South Africa)
ICC T20 Women's Cricketer of the year-Sarah Taylor (England)
ICC Umpire of the year (David Shepherd Trophy)-Kumar Dharmasena (Sri Lanka)
Above the line: "Above the Line" is the term commonly used for advertising for which a payment is made and for which commission is paid to the advertising agency. Methods of above the line advertising include television and radio, magazines, newspapers and Internet.
Ad hoc market research: Ad-hoc research focuses on specific marketing problems. It involves the collection of data at one point in time from one sample of respondents.
Added value: Added value refers to the increase in worth of a product or service as a result of a particular activity. In the context of marketing, the added value is provided by features and benefits over and above those representing the "core product".
Ad-Valorem Duties: These are the duties determined as a certain percentage of prices of the product.
AIDA: Attention Interest Desire Action
AIFI: All India Financial Institution
ALCO: Asset-Liability Management Committee
ALM: Asset/ liability management involves a set of techniques to create value and manage risks in a bank.
Ambush marketing: A deliberate attempt by a business or brand to associate itself with an event (often a sporting event) in order to gain some of the benefits associated with being an official sponsor without incurring the costs of sponsorship
AMC: Asset Management Committee
Annual Financial Statement: It is a statement of receipts and expenditure of states for the financial year, presented to Parliament by the government. It is divided into three parts: Consolidated Fund, Contingency Fund and Public Account.
Appropriation Bill: It is presented to Parliament for its approval, so that the government can withdraw from the Consolidated Fund the amounts required for meeting the expenditure charged on the Consolidated Fund. No amount can be withdrawn from the Consolidated Fund till the Appropriation Bill is voted is enacted.
Appropriation Bill: This Bill is like a green signal enabling the withdrawal of money from the Consolidated Fund to pay off expenses. These are instruments that Parliament clears after the demand for grants has been voted by the Lok Sabha.
Augmented brand: The additional customer services and benefits ("added value") that are built around the core product or service offering
Balance Of Payments: The difference between demand and supply of a country's currency in the foreign exchange market.
Balance Of Trade: The difference between monetary value of exports and imports of output in an economy over a certain period of time. It is the relationship between a nation's imports and exports.
Banking Cash Transaction Tax (BCTT): BCTT is a small tax on cash withdrawal from bank exceeding a particular amount in a single day. The basic idea is to curb the black economy and generate a record of big cash transactions. This tax was introduced in 2005-06 budget.
Behavioural Segmentation: Behavioural segmentation divides customers into groups based on the way they respond to, use or know of a product.
Bond: A negotiable instrument evidencing debt, under which the issuer promises to pay the holder its face value plus interest as agreed.
Brand building: Developing a brand's image and standing with a view to creating long term benefits for brand awareness and brand value
Brand equity: Brand equity refers to the value of a brand. Brand equity is based on the extent to which the brand has high brand loyalty, name awareness, perceived quality and strong product associations. Brand equity also includes other "intangible" assets such as patents, trademarks and channel relationships.
Brand extension: Brand extension refers to the use of a successful brand name to launch a new or modified product in a new market. Virgin is perhaps the best example of how brand extension can be applied into quite diverse and distinct markets.
Brand image: Brand image refers to the set of beliefs that customers hold about a particular brand. These are important to develop well since a negative brand image can be very difficult to shake off.
Brand loyalty: A strongly motivated and long standing decision to purchase a particular product or service
Budget estimates: It is an estimate of Fiscal Deficit and Revenue Deficit for the year. The term is associated with estimates of the Center's spending during the financial year and income received as proceeds of tax revenues
Budgetary Deficit: Such a situation arises when expenses exceed revenues. Here the entire budgetary exercise falls short of allocating enough funds to a certain area.
Business to business: Marketing activity directed from one business to another (as opposed to a consumer). This term is often shortened to "B2B"
businesses communicating with customers.
Capital Budget: Capital Budget keeps track of the government's capital receipts and payments. This accounts for market loans, borrowings from the Reserve Bank and other institutions through sale of Treasury Bills, loans acquired from foreign governments and recoveries of loans granted by the Central government to State governments and Union Territories.
Capital Budget: It consists of capital receipts and payments. It also incorporates transactions in the Public Account. It has two components: Capital Receipt and Capital Expenditure.
Capital budget: The list of planned capital expenditures prepared usually annually Capital Gain and Loss. The difference between the price that is originally paid for a security and cash proceeds at the time of maturity (face value of bond) or at the time of sale (selling price of a bond or stock). When the difference is positive, it is a gain, but when it is negative, it is a loss.
Capital Expenditure: It consists of payments for acquisition of assets like land, buildings, machinery, equipment, as also investments in shares etc, and loans and advances granted by the Central government to state and union territory governments, government companies, corporations and other parties.
Capital expenditure: Long-term in nature they are used for acquiring fixed assets such as land, building, machinery and equipment. Other items that also fall under this category include, loans and advances sanctioned by the Center to the State governments, union territories and public sector undertakings.
Capital Goods: Goods used in the manufacturing of finished products
Capital investments: Money used to purchase permanent fixed assets for a business, such as machinery, land or buildings as opposed to day-to-day operating expenses.
Capital Market: Market in which financial instruments are bought and sold.
Capital Payments: Expenses incurred on acquisition of capital assets
Capital Receipt: Capital Receipts consist of loans raised by the Center from the market, government borrowings from the RBI & other parties, sale of Treasury Bills and loans received from foreign governments. Other items that also fall under this category include recovery of loans granted by the Center to State governments & Union Territories and proceeds from the dilution of the government's stake in Public Sector Undertakings.
Capital Receipt: The main items of capital receipts are loans raised by the government from public which are called market loans, borrowings by the government from the Reserve Bank of India and other parties through sale of Treasury Bills, loans received from foreign governments and bodies and recoveries of loans granted by the Central government to state and union territory governments and other parties. It also includes proceeds from disinvestment of government equity in public enterprises.
Capital Structure: The composition of a firm's long-term financing consisting of equity, preference shares, and long-term debt.
Capital: Funds invested in a firm by the owners for use in conducting the business.
CCI: Competition Commission of India
Central Plan Outlay: It refers to the government's budgetary support to the Plan. It is the division of monetary resources among different sectors in the economy and ministries of the government.
CENVAT: This is a replacement for the earlier MODVAT scheme and is meant for reducing the cascade effect of indirect taxes on finished products. This is more extensive scheme with most goods brought under its preview
CESS: This is an additional levy on the basic tax liability. Governments resort to cess for meeting specific expenditure. For instance, both corporate and individual income is at present subject to an education cess of 2%. In the last Budget, the government had imposed another 1% cess as secondary and higher education cess on income tax to finance secondary and higher education.
Cognitive dissonance: Cognitive dissonance is an customer effect commonly observed after a major purchase whereby the customer feels uncertainty about whether the purchase should have been made. Post-purchase promotion (particularly advertising) has a role to play to reduce the incidence and effect of cognitive dissonance
Combination brand: A combination brand name brings together a family brand name and an individual brand name. The idea here is to provide some association for the product with a strong family brand name but maintaining some distinctiveness so that customers know what they are getting
Competitive advantage: A competitive advantage is a clear performance differential over the competition on factors that are important to customers
Competitor benchmarking: Competitor benchmarking compares customer satisfaction with the products, services and relationships of the business with those of key competitors
Consolidated Fund: This is one big reservoir where the government pools all its funds together. The fund includes all government revenues, loans raised and recoveries of loans granted.
Marketing: The all-embracing function that links the business with customer needs and wants in order to get the right product to the right place at the right time"
Minimum Alternate Tax (MAT): It's known that a company pays tax on profits as per the Income-Tax Act. If a company's tax liability is less than 10% of its profits, it has to pay a minimum alternate tax of 10% of the book profits.
MODVAT: It stands for Modified Value Added Tax and is a way of giving some relief to the final manufacturers of goods on Excise Duties borne by their suppliers.
Monetized Deficit: Measures the level of support the RBI provides to the Centre's borrowing program.
National Debt: Total outstanding borrowings of the central government exchequer.
Non-Plan Expenditure: Expenses that don't form a part of the government's five year plan. These expenses consist of Revenue and Capital Expenditure on interest payments, Defense Expenditure, subsidies, postal deficit, police, pensions, economic services, loans to public sector enterprises and loans as well as grants to State governments, Union territories and foreign governments.
Non-Tax Revenue: Any loan given to state governments, public institutions, PSUs come with a price (interests) and forms the most important receipts under this head apart from dividends and profits received from PSUs. The government also earns from the various services including public services it provides.
Peak Rate: it is the highest rate of Custom Duty applicable on an item.
Per capita income: The national income of a country, or region, divided by its population.
Performance Budget: it is a compilation of programs and activities of different ministries and departments.
Plan Expenditure: Consists of both Revenue Expenditure and Capital Expenditure of the Center on the Central Plan, Central Assistance to States and Union Territories.
Plan Outlay: Plan Outlay is the amount for expenditure on projects, schemes and programmes announced in the Plan. The money for the Plan Outlay is raised through budgetary support and internal and extra-budgetary resources. The budgetary support is also shown as plan expenditure in government accounts.
Primary Deficit: Fiscal Deficit minus Interest payments
Product life cycle: The course of a product's sales and profitability over its lifetime. The model describes five stages, each of which represents a different opportunity for the marketer: - Development, Introduction, Growth, Maturity, Decline.
Product: A product is defined as anything that is capable of satisfying customer
Progressive Tax Structure: a tax structure in which the marginal tax rate increases as the level of income increases.
Promotion: One of the four "P's" of the marketing mix. Promotion is all about
Proportional Tax: a tax taking the same percentage of income regardless of the level of income.
Public Account: it is an account where money received through transactions not relating to consolidated fund is kept.
Public Debt: The difference between borrowings and repayments during the year is the net accretion to the public debt. Public debt can be split into two heads, internal debt (money borrowed within the country) and external debt (funds borrowed from non-Indian sources).
Regressive Tax: a tax in which the poor pay a larger percentage of income than the rich. It is the opposite of Progressive Tax.
Repo (Repurchase) rate: It is the rate at which the RBI lends shot-term money to the banks against securities. When the repo rate increases borrowing from RBI becomes more expensive. Therefore, we can say that in case, RBI wants to make it more expensive for the banks to borrow money, it increases the repo rate; similarly, if it wants to make it cheaper for banks to borrow money, it reduces the repo rate.
Revenue budget: Consists of Revenue Receipts and Revenue Expenditure of the government.
Revenue Deficit: It is the difference between Revenue Expenditure and Revenue Receipts.
Revenue Surplus: Opposite of Revenue Deficit, it is the excess of Revenue Receipts over Revenue Expenditure.
Reverse Repo rate is the rate at which banks park their short-term excess liquidity with the RBI. The banks use this tool when they feel that they are stuck with excess funds and are not able to invest anywhere for reasonable returns. An increase in the reverse repo rate means that the RBI is ready to borrow money from the banks at a higher rate of interest. As a result, banks would prefer to keep more and more surplus funds with RBI.
Revised Estimates: usually given in the following budget, it is the difference between the Budget Estimates and the actual figures.
SEBI: Securities and Exchange Board of India
Securities Transaction Tax (STT): STT is a small tax you need to pay on the total amount you pay or receive in a share deal. In the 2004-05 Budget, the government did away with the tax on profits earned on the sale of shares held for over a year (known as long-term capital gains tax) and replaced it with STT.
SLR: Statutory Liquidity Ratio. Every bank is required to maintain at the close of business every day, a minimum proportion of their Net Demand and Time Liabilities as liquid assets in the form of cash, gold and un-encumbered approved securities. The ratio of liquid assets to demand and time liabilities is known as Statutory Liquidity Ratio (SLR). RBI is empowered to increase this ratio up to 40%. An increase in SLR also restrict the bank's leverage position to pump more money into the economy
Special Economic Zone Scheme: A new export promotion scheme entitled 'Special Economic Zone' (SEZ) was introduced in the Export and Import (EXIM) Policy which came into effect from 1.4.2000. The Scheme envisages a simple and transparent policy and procedure for promotion of exports with minimum paper work. The most important feature of the Scheme is that the SEZ area is considered essentially as a foreign territory for the purposes of trade operations, duties & tariffs. Therefore, goods supplied to SEZ from the Domestic Tariff Area (DTA) are treated as deemed exports and goods brought from SEZ to DTA are treated as imported goods.
Subsidies: Financial aid provided by the Center to individuals or a group of individuals to be competitive. The grant of subsidies is also aimed at improving their skills of those who benefit from the subsidies.
Subvention: This is how a government bears the loss that financial institutions incur when asked to give farmer loans below the market rates.
Surcharge: This is an extra bit of 10% on the tax liability that individuals pay for earning more than Rs. 10 lakh. Companies with revenue of up to Rs. 1 crore are spared.
TRAI: Telecom Regulatory Authority of India
Treasury Bill (T-BILLS): These are bonds (debt securities) with maturity of less than a year. These are issued to meet short-term mismatches in receipts and expenditure.
VAT: This tax is based on the difference between the value of output and the value of inputs used to produce it. The aim here is to tax a firm only for the value it adds to the manufacturing inputs, and not the entire input cost. Thus, VAT helps avoid a cascading of taxes as a product passes through different stages of production/value addition.
Vote On Account: It is a sort of interim budget where the government presents accounts required to keep the process on until the next government takes over.
Ways And Means Advance (WMA): RBI is the banker for both Central and State governments. Hence, it provides a breather to manage mismatches in their receipts and payments in the form of ways and means advances.
What is the Union Budget?: The Union Budget is the annual report of India as a country. It contains the government of India's revenue and expenditure for the end of a particular fiscal year, which runs from April 1 to March 31. The Union Budget is the most extensive account of the government's finances, in which revenues from all sources and expenses of all activities undertaken are aggregated. It comprises the revenue budget and the capital budget. It also contains estimates for the next fiscal year.
Consumer buyers: Consumer buyers are those who purchase items for their personal consumption
Consumer durables: Consumer durables have low volume but high unit value. Consumer durables are often further divided into White goods (e.g. fridge freezers; cookers; dishwashers; microwaves) and Brown goods (e.g. DVD players; games consoles; personal computers)
Consumer markets: Consumer markets are the markets for products and services bought by individuals for their own or family use
Consumer Price Index: It is a price index covering the prices of consumer goods.
Consumer Price Index: It is a price index that features the rates of consumer goods
Contingency Fund: It is more or less similar to that extra little bit of savings that all mothers set aside in case of an emergency. Likewise, the government has created this fund to help it tide over difficult situations. The fund is at the disposal of the President to meet unforeseen and urgent expenditure, pending approval from Parliament. The amount that is withdrawn from the fund is recouped.
Continuous market research: Continuous research involves interviewing the same sample of people, repeatedly
Core product: The set of problem-solving or need-meeting benefits that customers are buying when they purchase a product. Customers are rarely prepared to pay a premium for these elements of a product.
Countervailing Duties (CVD): This is levied on imports that may lead to price rise in the domestic market. It is imposed with the intention of discouraging unfair trading practices by other countries.
CRR means Cash Reserve Ratio. Banks in India are required to hold a certain proportion of their deposits in the form of cash. However, actually Banks don't hold these as cash with themselves, but deposit such case with Reserve Bank of India (RBI)/ currency chests, which is considered as equivalent to holding cash with RBI. This minimum ratio (that is the part of the total deposits to be held as cash) is stipulated by the RBI and is known as the CRR or Cash Reserve Ratio. Thus, when a bank's deposits increase by Rs 100, and if the cash reserve ratio is 6%, the banks will have to hold additional Rs 6 with RBI and Bank will be able to use only Rs 94 for investments and lending/ credit purpose. Therefore, higher the ratio (i.e. CRR), the lower is the amount that banks will be able to use for lending and investment. This power of RBI to reduce the lendable amount by increasing the CRR, makes it an instrument in the hands of a central bank through which it can control the amount that banks lend. Thus, it is a tool used by RBI to control liquidity in the banking system.
Current Account Deficit: This deficit shows the difference between the nation's exports and imports.
Current Account Surplus: Excess of receipts over expenditure on current account in a country's balance of payments.
Custom Duties: These duties are levied on goods whenever they are either brought into the country or exported from the country. The importer or the exporter pays custom duties.
Customer demand: Consumer demand is a want for a specific product supported by an ability and willingness to pay for it.
Customer loyalty: Feelings or attitudes that incline a customer either to return to a company, shop or outlet to purchase there again, or else to re-purchase a particular product, service or brand.
Demand For Grants: It is a statement of estimate of expenditure from the Consolidated Fund. This requires approval of the Lok Sabha.
Direct marketing: The planned recording, analysis and tracking of customer behaviour to develop a relational marketing strategies
Direct Taxes: Taxes paid directly by the person or organisation on whom they are levied. Income Tax and Corporate Tax fall under this tax category
Disinvestment: It is the dilution of government's stake in Public Sector Undertakings.
Early adopters: People who choose new products carefully and are often consulted by people from the remaining adopter categories
ECB: External Commercial Borrowing
E-commerce: The use of technologies such as the Internet, electronic data exchange and industry extranets to streamline business transactions
Endorsement: The promotion of some kind of product recommendation or affirmation, usually from a celebrity, implying to the potential customer that a product is good
ESPO: Employee Stock Option Loan
Excise duties: These duties refer to duties imposed on goods manufactured within the country.
Finance Bill: It is the government's proposals for imposition of new taxes, modification of the existing tax structure or continuance of the existing tax structure beyond the period approved by Parliament.
Fiscal Deficit: It is the difference between the Revenue Receipts and Total Expenditure.
Fiscal Policy: Fiscal policy is a change in government expenditure and/or taxation designed to influence economic activity. These changes are designed to control the level of aggregate demand in the economy. Governments usually bring about changes in taxation, volume of spending, and size of the budget deficit or surplus to affect public expenditure.
FRBM Act: Enacted in 2003, the Fiscal Responsibility and Budget Management Act required the elimination of revenue deficit by 2008-09. This means that from 2008-09, the government was to meet all its revenue expenditure from its revenue receipts. Any borrowing was to be done to meet capital expenditure i.e. repayment of loans, lending and fresh investment. The Act also mandates a 3% limit on the fiscal deficit after 2008-09; one that allows the government to build capacities in the economy without compromising on fiscal stability.
Fringe Benefit Tax (FBT): It is the tax levied on the 'fringe benefit' / perks given by a company to its employees. Companies could no longer get away with marking such expenses as 'ordinary business expenses' and escape tax when they actually gave out club memberships to their employees. Employers had to now pay a tax (FBT) on a percentage of the expense incurred on such perquisites. This tax was introduced in the 2005-06 budget.
Gender segmentation: The segmentation of markets based on the sex of the customer. The cosmetic industry is a good example of widespread use of gender segmentation, Geographic segmentation, Geographic segmentation divides markets into different geographical units
Gross Domestic Product: Total market value of the goods and services manufactured within the country in a financial year. GROSS NATIONAL PRODUCT Total market value of the finished goods and services manufactured within the country in a given financial year, plus income earned by the local residents from investments made abroad, minus the income earned by foreigners in the domestic market.
Growth stage: The stage at which a product's sales rise rapidly and profits reach a
GST: A GST (Goods and Services Tax) contains the entire element of tax borne by a good / service including a Central and a state-level tax.
Income Tax: This is the tax levied on individual income from various sources like salaries, investments, interest, etc.
Indirect Taxes: Taxes imposed on goods manufactured, imported or exported such as Excise Duties and Custom Duties.
Inflation: A progressive increase in prices of goods and services. It is the percentage rate of change in the price level. In inflation, everything tends to appear more valuable except money.
Internal marketing: The process of eliciting support for a company and its activities among its own employees, in order to encourage them to promote its goals. This process can happen at a number of levels, from increasing awareness of individual products or marketing campaigns, to explaining overall business strategy.
Laggards: The group of consumers who are typically last to buy a new product
Marginal Standing Facility Rate: Under this scheme, Banks will be able to borrow upto 1% of their respective Net Demand and Time Liabilities". The rate of interest on the amount accessed from this facility will be 100 basis points (i.e. 1%) above the repo rate. This scheme is likely to reduce volatility in the overnight rates and improve monetary transmission.
Market segmentation: Segmentation involves subdividing markets, channels or customers into groups with different needs, to deliver tailored propositions which meet these needs as precisely as possible.
Market targeting: Market targeting is the process of evaluating each market segment and selecting the most attractive segments to enter with a particular product or product line.