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Monday, September 27, 2010

Computer General Awareness

Computer General Awareness

1. A passive threat to computer security is—
(1) Malicious Intent
(2) Sabotage
(3) Accident Errors
(4) Espionage Agents
(5) None of these

2. The Secure Electronic Transaction (SET) specification—
(1) is a notice, issued and verified by a certificate authority, that guarantees a user or Web site is legitimate
(2) provides private-key encryption of all data that passes between a client and a server
(3) allows users to choose an encryption scheme for the data that passes between a client and a server
(4) uses a public-key encryption to secure credit-card transaction systems
(5) None of these

3. ……………allows wireless mobile devices to access the Internet and its services such as the Web and e-mail—
(1) TCP/IP
(2) Ethernet
(4) Token ring
(5) None of these

4. 'DOS' floppy disk does not have—
(1) A Boot Record
(2) A File Allocation Table
(3) A Root Directory
(4) Virtual Memory
(5) BIOS

5. 'MICR' technology used for clearance of cheques by banks refers to—
(1) Magnetic Ink Character Recognition
(2) Magnetic Intelligence Character Recognition
(3) Magnetic Information Cable Recognition
(4) Magnetic Insurance Cases Recognition
(5) None of these

6. All the information collected during database development is stored in a—
(1) repository
(2) data warehouse
(3) RAD
(4) CASE
(5) None of these

7. The……………….component is used by the data analyst to create the queries that access the database.
(1) data extraction
(2) end-user query tool
(3) end-user presentation tool
(4) data store
(5) None of these

8. A(n)…………….allows network users to share a single copy of software, which resides on the network server.
(1) single-user license agreement
(2) network site license
(3) end-user license agreement
(4) business software license
(5) None of these

9. A polymorphic virus—
(1) modifies its program code each time it attaches itself to another program or file
(2) is a malicious-logic program that copies itself repeatedly in memory or on a disk drive until no memory or disk space remains
(3) a malicious-logic program that hides within or looks like a legitimate program
(4) infects a program file, but still reports the size and creation date of the original, uninfected program
(5) None of these

10. Microwave transmission is used in environments where installing physical transmission media is—
(1) difficult or impossible and where line-of-sight transmission is unavailable
(2) easy or promising and where line-of-sight transmission is unavailable
(3) difficult or impossible and where line-of-sight transmission is available
(4) easy or promising and where line-of-sight transmission is available
(5) None of these

11. Which is NOT a good Web security strategy?
(1) Restrict access to the Web server; keep a minimum number of ports open
(2) Limit the users who can load software, edit or add files.
(3) Add demo programs, so users can test system without accessing production data.
(4) Remove unnecessary compilers and interpreters.
(5) None of these

12. The altering of data so that it is not usable unless the changes are undone is—
(1) Biometrics
(2) Compression
(3) Encryption
(4) Ergonomics
(5) None of these

13. The word FIP stands for—
(1) File Translate Protocol
(2) File Transit Protocol
(3) File Typing Protocol
(4) File Transfer Protocol
(5) None of these

14. Voice mail—
(1) is the exchange of text messages and computer files transmitted via a communications network such as a local area network or the Internet
(2) permits users to converse in real time with each other via the computer while connected to the Internet
(3) functions much like an answering machine, allowing callers to leave a voice message for the called party
(4) involves using video and computer technology to conduct a meeting between participants at geographically separate locations
(5) None of these

15. A communication processor that connects dissimilar networks by providing the translation from one set of protocol to another is—
(1) Bridge
(2) Gateway
(3) Router
(4) Modem
(5) All of these

16. Which of the following is a general-purpose programming language, designed by Sun Microsystems, and well suited for use on the Web?
(1) VB Script
(2) Java Script
(3) CSS
(4) Java
(5) None of these

17. This.............tier processes HTTP protocol, scripting tasks, performs calculations, and provides access to data.
(1) Client
(2) Applications/Web server
(3) Enterprise server
(4) DBA
(5) None of these

18. RSA is—
(1) Symmetric Cryptosystem
(2) Asymmetric Cryptosystem
(3) Block Cypher
(4) Digital Signature
(5) None of these

19. A DVD-RAM is similar to a………………except it has storage capacities up to 5.2 GB.
(1) CD-R
(2) floppy disk
(3) CD-RW
(4) hard disk
(5) None of these

20. When you are selecting a mouse for a particular computer system, what is the most important consideration?
(1) The type of drivers that come with the mouse
(2) The length of the mouse cord
(3) The type of connector the mouse is equipped with
(4) The number of buttons the mouse has
(5) None of these

21. How is power supplied to a low-power USB device?
(1) Through a power cable
(2) From an external power supply
(3) Directly from the computer's power supply
(4) Through the USB cable
(5) None of these

22. All of the following are basic principles of net works, except—
(1) each computer must have a network card
(2) there must be communications media connecting the network hardware devices
(3) there must be at least one connecting device
(4) each computer must have software that supports the movement of information
(5) None of these

23. The………….data mining technique derives rules from real-world case examples.
(1) Rule discover
(2) Signal processing
(3) Neural nets
(4) Case-based reasoning
(5) None of these

24. …………….are used to identify a user who returns to a Website.
(1) Cookies
(2) Plug-ins
(3) Scripts
(4) ASPs
(5) None of these

25. Which one of the following objects is passed to a Java Bean when one of its properties is set via a JSP action?
(1) Servlet Request
(2) Http Servlet Request
(3) Servlet Response
(4) Http Servlet Response
(5) None of these

Answers :
1. (1) 2. (4) 3. (3) 4. (4) 5. (1)
6. (2) 7. (2) 8. (2) 9. (1) 10. (4)
11. (4) 12. (3) 13. (1) 14. (3) 15. (2)
16. (2) 17. (1) 18. (4) 19. (3) 20. (3)
21. (4) 22. (2) 23. (3) 24. (1) 25. (3)



The Indian National Flag represents the hopes and aspirations of the people of India. It is the
symbol of our national pride. Over the last five decades, several people including members of armed

forces have ungrudgingly laid down their lives to keep the tricolour flying in its full glory.

The significance of the colours and the chakra in the National Flag was amply described by
Dr. S. Radhakrishnan in the Constituent Assembly which unanimously adopted the National Flag.

Dr. S. Radhakrishnan explained—"Bhagwa or the saffron colour denotes renunciation of

disinterestedness. Our leaders must be indifferent to material gains and dedicate themselves to their
work. The white in the centre is light, the path of truth to guide our conduct. The green shows our

relation to soil, our relation to the plant life here on which all other life depends. The Ashoka Wheel
in the center of the white is the wheel of the law of dharma. Truth or satya, dharma or virtue ought to

be the controlling principles of those who work under this flag. Again, the wheel denotes motion.
There is death in stagnation. There is life in movement. India should no more resist change, it must

move and go forward. The wheel represents the dynamism of a peaceful change."

There is universal affection and respect for, and loyalty to, the National Flag. Yet, a
perceptible lack of awareness is often noticed, not only amongst people but also in the
organisations/agencies of the government, in regard to laws, practices and conventions that apply to
the display of the National Flag. Apart from non-statutory instructions issued by the Government
from time to time, display of the National Flag is governed by the provisions of the Emblems and

Names (Prevention of Improper Use) Act, 1950 (No.12 of 1950) and the Prevention of Insults to

National Honour Act, 1971 (No. 69 of 1971). Flag Code of India, 2002 is an attempt to bring together
all such laws, conventions, practices and instructions for the guidance and benefit of all concerned.

For the sake of convenience, Flag Code of India, 2002, has been divided into three parts. Part I
of the Code contains general description of the National Flag. Part II of the Code is devoted to the

display of the National Flag by members of public, private organizations, educational institutions, etc.
Part III of the Code relates to display of the National Flag by Central and State governments and their
organisations and agencies.

Flag Code of India, 2002, takes effect from January 26, 2002 and supersedes the 'Flag Code

for more details download here :

Wednesday, September 22, 2010

A Brief History of NASA

A Brief History of NASA

Launching NASA

"An Act to provide for research into the problems of flight within and outside the Earth's atmosphere, and for other purposes." With this simple preamble, the Congress and the President of the United States created the national Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) on October 1, 1958. NASA's birth was directly related to the pressures of national defense. After World War II, the United States and the Soviet Union were engaged in the Cold War, a broad contest over the ideologies and allegiances of the nonaligned nations. During this period, space exploration emerged as a major area of contest and became known as the space race.
During the late 1940s, the Department of Defense pursued research and rocketry and upper atmospheric sciences as a means of assuring American leadership in technology. A major step forward came when President Dwight D. Eisenhower approved a plan to orbit a scientific satellite as part of the International Geophysical Year (IGY) for the period, July 1, 1957 to December 31, 1958, a cooperative effort to gather scientific data about the Earth. The Soviet Union quickly followed suit, announcing plans to orbit its own satellite.
The Naval Research Laboratory's Project Vanguard was chosen on 9 September 1955 to support the IGY effort, largely because it did not interfere with high-priority ballistic missile development programs. It used the non-military Viking rocket as its basis while an Army proposal to use the Redstone ballistic missile as the launch vehicle waited in the wings. Project Vanguard enjoyed exceptional publicity throughout the second half of 1955, and all of 1956, but the technological demands upon the program were too great and the funding levels too small to ensure success.
A full-scale crisis resulted on October 4, 1957 when the Soviets launched Sputnik 1, the world's first artificial satellite as its IGY entry. This had a "Pearl Harbor" effect on American public opinion, creating an illusion of a technological gap and provided the impetus for increased spending for aerospace endeavors, technical and scientific educational programs, and the chartering of new federal agencies to manage air and space research and development.
More immediately, the United States launched its first Earth satellite on January 31, 1958, when Explorer 1documented the existence of radiation zones encircling the Earth. Shaped by the Earth's magnetic field, what came to be called the Van Allen Radiation Belt, these zones partially dictate the electrical charges in the atmosphere and the solar radiation that reaches Earth. The U.S. also began a series of scientific missions to the Moon and planets in the latter 1950s and early 1960s.
A direct result of the Sputnik crisis, NASA began operations on October 1, 1958, absorbing into itself the earlier National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics intact: its 8,000 employees, an annual budget of $100 million, three major research laboratories-Langley Aeronautical Laboratory, Ames Aeronautical Laboratory, and Lewis Flight Propulsion Laboratory-and two smaller test facilities. It quickly incorporated other organizations into the new agency, notably the space science group of the Naval Research Laboratory in Maryland, the Jet Propulsion Laboratory managed by the California Institute of Technology for the Army, and the Army Ballistic Missile Agency in Huntsville, Alabama, where Wernher von Braun's team of engineers were engaged in the development of large rockets. Eventually NASA created other Centers and today it has ten located around the country.
NASA began to conduct space missions within months of its creation, and during its first twenty years NASA conducted several major programs:
  • Human space flight initiatives-Mercury's single astronaut program (flights during 1961-1963) to ascertain if a human could survive in space; Project Gemini (flights during 1965-1966) with two astronauts to practice space operations, especially rendezvous and docking of spacecraft and extravehicular activity (EVA); and Project Apollo (flights during 1968-1972) to explore the Moon.
  • Robotic missions to the Moon Ranger, Surveyor, and Lunar Orbiter), Venus (Pioneer Venus),Mars (Mariner 4, Viking 1 and 2), and the outer planets (Pioneer 10 and 11, Voyager 1 and 2).
  • Aeronautics research to enhance air transport safety, reliability, efficiency, and speed (X-15 hypersonic flight, lifting body flight research, avionics and electronics studies, propulsion technologies, structures research, aerodynamics investigations).
  • Remote-sensing Earth satellites for information gathering (Landsat satellites for environmental monitoring).
  • Applications satellites for communications (Echo 1, TIROS, and Telstra) and weather monitoring.
  • An orbital workshop for astronauts, Skylab.
  • A reusable spacecraft for traveling to and from Earth orbit, the Space Shuttle.

Early Spaceflights: Mercury and Gemini

NASA's first high-profile program involving human spaceflight was Project Mercury, an effort to learn if humans could survive the rigors of spaceflight. On May 5, 1961, Alan B. Shepard Jr. became the first American to fly into space, when he rode his Mercury capsule on a 15-minute suborbital mission. John H. Glenn Jr. became the first U.S. astronaut to orbit the Earth on February 20, 1962. With six flights, Project Mercury achieved its goal of putting piloted spacecraft into Earth orbit and retrieving the astronauts safely.
Project Gemini built on Mercury's achievements and extended NASA's human spaceflight program to spacecraft built for two astronauts. Gemini's 10 flights also provided NASA scientists and engineers with more data on weightlessness, perfected reentry and splashdown procedures, and demonstrated rendezvous and docking in space. One of the highlights of the program occurred during Gemini 4, on June 3, 1965, when Edward H. White, Jr., became the first U.S. astronaut to conduct a spacewalk.
Apollo Going to the Moon

Going to the Moon – Project Apollo

The singular achievement of NASA during its early years involved the human exploration of the Moon, Project Apollo. Apollo became a NASA priority on May 25 1961, when President John F. Kennedy announced "I believe that this nation should commit itself to achieving the goal, before this decade is out, of landing a man on the Moon and returning him safely to Earth." A direct response to Soviet successes in space, Kennedy used Apollo as a high-profile effort for the U.S. to demonstrate to the world its scientific and technological superiority over its cold war adversary.
In response to the Kennedy decision, NASA was consumed with carrying out Project Apollo and spent the next 11 years doing so. This effort required significant expenditures, costing $25.4 billion over the life of the program, to make it a reality. Only the building of the Panama Canal rivaled the size of the Apollo program as the largest nonmilitary technological endeavor ever undertaken by the United States; only the Manhattan Project was comparable in a wartime setting. Although there were major challenges and some failures – notably a January 27, 1967 fire in an Apollo capsule on the ground that took the lives of astronauts Roger B. Chaffee, Virgil "Gus" Grissom, and Edward H. White Jr. Jr. – the program moved forward inexorably.
Less than two years later, in October 1968, NASA bounced back with the successful Apollo 7 mission, which orbited the Earth and tested the redesigned Apollo command module. The Apollo 8 mission, which orbited the Moon on December 24-25, 1968, when its crew read from the book of Genesis, was another crucial accomplishment on the way to the Moon.
"That's one small step for [a] man, one giant leap for mankind." Neil A. Armstrong uttered these famous words on July 20, 1969, when the Apollo 11 mission fulfilled Kennedy's challenge by successfully landing Armstrong and Edwin E. "Buzz" Aldrin, Jr. on the Moon. Armstrong dramatically piloted the lunar module to the lunar surface with less than 30 seconds worth of fuel remaining. After taking soil samples, photographs, and doing other tasks on the Moon, Armstrong and Aldrin rendezvoused with their colleague Michael Collins in lunar orbit for a safe voyage back to Earth.
Five more successful lunar landing missions followed. The Apollo 13 mission of April 1970 attracted the public's attention when astronauts and ground crews had to improvise to end the mission safely after an oxygen tank burst midway through the journey to the Moon. Although this mission never landed on the Moon, it reinforced the notion that NASA had a remarkable ability to adapt to the unforeseen technical difficulties inherent in human spaceflight.
With the Apollo 17 mission of December 1972, NASA completed a successful engineering and scientific program. Fittingly, Harrison H. "Jack" Schmitt, a geologist who participated on this mission, was the first scientist to be selected as an astronaut. NASA learned a good deal about the origins of the Moon, as well as how to support humans in outer space. In total, 12 astronauts walked on the Moon during 6 Apollo lunar landing missions.
In 1975, NASA cooperated with the Soviet Union to achieve the first international human spaceflight, the Apollo-Soyuz Test Project (ASTP). This project successfully tested joint rendezvous and docking procedures for spacecraft from the U.S. and the U.S.S.R. After being launched separately from their respective countries, the Apollo and Soyuz crews met in space and conducted various experiments for two days.
Space Shuttle

Space Shuttle

After a gap of six years, NASA returned to human spaceflight in 1981, with the advent of the Space Shuttle. The Shuttle's first mission, STS-1, took off on April 12, 1981, demonstrating that it could take off vertically and glide to an unpowered airplane-like landing. On STS-6, during April 4-9, 1983, F. Story Musgrave and Donald H. Peterson conducted the first Shuttle EVA, to test new spacesuits and work in the Shuttle's cargo bay. Sally K. Ride became the first American woman to fly in space when STS-7 lifted off on June 18, 1983, another early milestone of the Shuttle program.
On January 28, 1986 a leak in the joints of one of two Solid Rocket Boosters attached to the Challengerorbiter caused the main liquid fuel tank to explode 73 seconds after launch, killing all 7 crew members. The Shuttle program was grounded for over two years, while NASA and its contractors worked to redesign the Solid Rocket Boosters and implement management reforms to increase safety. On September 29, 1988, the Shuttle successfully returned to flight and NASA then flew a total of 87 successful missions.
Tragedy struck again on February 1, 2003, however. As the Columbia orbiter was returning to Earth on the STS-107 mission, it disintegrated about 15 minutes before it was to have landed. The Columbia Accident Investigation Board was quickly formed and determined that a small piece of foam had come off the External Tank and had struck the Reinforced Carbon Carbon panels on the underside of the left wing during launch on January 16. When the orbiter was returning to Earth, the breach in the RCC panels allowed hot gas to penetrate the orbiter, leading to a catastrophic failure and the loss of seven crewmembers.
NASA is poised to return to flight again in summer 2005 with the STS-114 mission. There are three Shuttle orbiters in NASA's fleet: Atlantis, Discovery, and Endeavour.

Toward a Permanent Human Presence in Space

The core mission of any future space exploration will be humanity's departure from Earth orbit and journeying to the Moon or Mars, this time for extended and perhaps permanent stays. A dream for centuries, active efforts to develop both the technology and the scientific knowledge necessary to carry this off are now well underway.
An initial effort in this area was NASA's Skylab program in 1973. After Apollo, NASA used its huge Saturn rockets to launch a relatively small orbital space workshop. There were three human Skylab missions, with the crews staying aboard the orbital workshop for 28, 59, and then 84 days. The first crew manually fixed a broken meteoroid shield, demonstrating that humans could successfully work in space. The Skylab program also served as a successful experiment in long-duration human spaceflight.
In 1984, Congress authorized NASA to build a major new space station as a base for further exploration of space. By 1986, the design depicted a complex, large, and multipurpose facility. In 1991, after much debate over the station's purpose and budget, NASA released plans for a restructured facility called Space Station Freedom. Another redesign took place after the Clinton administration took office in 1993 and the facility became known as Space Station Alpha.
Then Russia, which had many years of experience in long-duration human spaceflight, such as with its Salyut and Mirspace stations, joined with the U.S. and other international partners in 1993 to build a joint facility that became known formally as the International Space Station (ISS). To prepare for building the ISS starting in late 1998, NASA participated in a series of Shuttle missions to Mir and seven American astronauts lived aboard Mir for extended stays. Permanent habitation of the ISS began with the launch of the Expedition One crew on October 31 and the docking on November 2, 2000.
On January 14, 2004, President George W. Bush visited NASA Headquarters and announced a new Vision for Space Exploration. This Vision entails sending humans back to the Moon and on to Mars by eventually retiring the Shuttle and developing a new, multipurpose Crew Exploration Vehicle. Robotic scientific exploration and technology development is also folded into this encompassing Vision.

The Science of Space

In addition to major human spaceflight programs, there have been significant scientific probes that have explored the Moon, the planets, and other areas of our solar system. In particular, the 1970s heralded the advent of a new generation of scientific spacecraft. Two similar spacecraft, Pioneer 10 and Pioneer 11, launched on March 2, 1972 and April 5, 1973, respectively, traveled to Jupiter and Saturn to study the composition of interplanetary space. Voyagers 1 and 2, launched on September 5, 1977 and August 20, 1977, respectively, conducted a "Grand Tour" of our solar system.
In 1990, the Hubble Space Telescope was launched into orbit around the Earth. Unfortunately, NASA scientists soon discovered that a microscopic spherical aberration in the polishing of the Hubble's mirror significantly limited the instrument's observing power. During a previously scheduled servicing mission in December, 1993, a team of astronauts performed a dramatic series of spacewalks to install a corrective optics package and other hardware. The hardware functioned like a contact lens and the elegant solution worked perfectly to restore Hubble's capabilities. The servicing mission again demonstrated the unique ability of humans to work in space, enabled Hubble to make a number of important astronomical discoveries, and greatly restored public confidence in NASA.
Several months before this first HST servicing mission, however, NASA suffered another major disappointment when the Mars Observer spacecraft disappeared on August 21, 1993, just three days before it was to go into orbit around the red planet. In response, NASA began developing a series of "better, faster, cheaper" spacecraft to go to Mars.
Mars Global Surveyor was the first of these spacecraft; it was launched on November 7, 1996, and has been in a Martian orbit mapping Mars since 1998. Using some innovative technologies, the Mars Pathfinder spacecraft landed on Mars on July 4, 1997 and explored the surface of the planet with its miniature rover, Sojourner. The Mars Pathfinder mission was a scientific and popular success, with the world following along via the Internet. This success was followed by the landing of the Spirit and Opportunity rovers in January 2004, to much scientific and popular acclaim.
Over the years, NASA has continued to look for life beyond our planet. In 1975, NASA launched the two Viking spacecraft to look for basic signs of life on Mars; the spacecraft arrived on Mars in 1976 but did not find any indications of past or present biological activity there. In 1996 a probe from the Galileo spacecraft that was examining Jupiter and its moon, Europa, revealed that Europa may contain ice or even liquid water, thought to be a key component in any life-sustaining environment. NASA also has used radio astronomy to scan the heavens for potential signals from extraterrestrial intelligent life. It continues to investigate whether any Martian meteorites contain microbiological organisms and in the late 1990s, organized an "Origins" program to search for life using powerful new telescopes and biological techniques. More recently scientists have found more and more evidence that water used to be present on Mars.

The "First A in NASA:" Aeronautics Research

Building on its roots in the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics, NASA has continued to conduct many types of cutting-edge aeronautics research on aerodynamics, wind shear, and other important topics using wind tunnels, flight testing, and computer simulations. In the 1960s, NASA's highly successful X-15 program involved a rocket-powered airplane that flew above the atmosphere and then glided back to Earth unpowered. The X-15 pilots helped researchers gain much useful information about supersonic aeronautics and the program also provided data for development of the Space Shuttle. NASA also cooperated with the Air Force in the 1960s on the X-20 Dyna-Soar program, which was designed to fly into orbit. The Dyna-Soar was a precursor to later similar efforts such as the National Aerospace Plane, on which NASA and other Government agencies and private companies did advanced hypersonics research in such areas as structures, materials, propulsion, and aerodynamics.
NASA has also done significant research on flight maneuverability on high speed aircraft that is often applicable to lower speed airplanes. NASA scientist Richard Whitcomb invented the "supercritical wing" that was specially shaped to delay and lessen the impact of shock waves on transonic military aircraft and had a significant impact on civil aircraft design. Beginning in 1972, the watershed F-8 digital-fly-by-wire (DFBW) program laid the groundwork for electronic DFBW flight in various later aircraft such as the F/A-18, the Boeing 777, and the Space Shuttle. More sophisticated DFBW systems were used on the X-29 and X-31 aircraft, which would have been uncontrollable otherwise. From 1963 to 1975, NASA conducted a research program on "lifting bodies," aircraft without wings. This valuable research paved the way for the Shuttle to glide to a safe unpowered landing, as well as for the later X-33 project, and for a prototype for a future crew return vehicle from the International Space Station.
In 2004, the X-43A airplane used innovative scramjet technology to fly at ten times the speed of sound, setting a world's record for air-breathing aircraft.

Applications Satellites

NASA did pioneering work in space applications such as communications satellites in the 1960s. The Echo, Telstar, Relay, and Syncom satellites were built by NASA or by the private sector based on significant NASA advances.
In the 1970s, NASA's Landsat program literally changed the way we look at our planet Earth. The first three Landsat satellites, launched in 1972, 1975, and 1978, transmitted back to Earth complex data streams that could be converted into colored pictures. Landsat data has been used in a variety of practical commercial applications such as crop management and fault line detection, and to track many kinds of weather such as droughts, forest fires, and ice floes. NASA has been involved in a variety of other Earth science efforts such as the Earth Observation System of spacecraft and data processing that have yielded important scientific results in such areas as tropical deforestation, global warming, and climate change.


Since its inception in 1958, NASA has accomplished many great scientific and technological feats. NASA technology has been adapted for many non-aerospace uses by the private sector. NASA remains a leading force in scientific research and in stimulating public interest in aerospace exploration, as well as science and technology in general. Perhaps more importantly, our exploration of space has taught us to view the Earth, ourselves, and the universe in a new way. While the tremendous technical and scientific accomplishments of NASA demonstrate vividly that humans can achieve previously inconceivable feats, we also are humbled by the realization that Earth is just a tiny "blue marble" in the cosmos.
For further reading:
Roger E. Bilstein, Testing Aircraft, Exploring Space: An Illustrated History of NACA and NASA. (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins New Series in NASA History, 2003).
For a list of the titles in the NASA History Series, many of which are on-line, please see on the Web.
1. Edwin E. "Buzz" Aldrin, Jr. descends from the Apollo 11 Lunar Module to become the second human to walk on the Moon. Neil A. Armstrong, who took this photograph, was the commander of the mission and the first to walk on the lunar surface.
2. This rare view of two Space Shuttle orbiters simultaneously on launch pads at the Kennedy Space center was taken on September 5, 1990. The Orbiter Columbia is shown in the foreground on pad 39A, where it was being prepared for a launch (STS-35) the next morning. This launch ended up being delayed until December 1990. In the background, the orbiter Discovery sits on pad 39B in preparation for an October liftoff on STS-41.
3. The Sojourner rover and undeployed ramps aboard the Mars Pathfinder spacecraft are shown shortly after landing on the Martian surface on July 4, 1997. Partially deflated airbags are also clearly visible.
4. The rocket-powered X-15 aircraft set a number of altitude and speed records. Its flights during the 1960s also provided engineers and scientists with much useful data for the Space Shuttle program.
5. This dramatic view of Earth was taken by the crew of Apollo 17. The Apollo program put into perspective for many people just how small and fragile our planet is. Over its forty-year existence, NASA has been involved in many meteorological and Earth science missions that help us better understand our Earth.

Tuesday, September 21, 2010

Indian scientists develop protein-packed potatoes

Indian scientists develop protein-packed potatoes

A team of Indian scientists have developed a genetically modified
potato which they claim is packed with up to 60 per cent more protein
than an ordinary tuber.
The potato variant created by researchers at National Institute for
Plant Genome Research (NIPGR), here was also found to have increased
levels of essential amino acids, which are otherwise limited in
Reporting their findings in the journal ''Proceedings of the National
Academy of Sciences'', the scientists said these transgenic potatoes
will gain much public acceptance than other genetically-modified crops
as it uses a gene from another edible crop -- the amaranth seed.
"Because potato constitutes an important part of the diet of many
people in developed as well as developing countries, it is apparent
that this can add value to potato-based products with enhanced
benefits for better human health," said Subhra Chakraborty, the lead
researcher of the project.
"Our strategy also offers unique opportunities for the genetic
engineering of unique traits into the next-generation crop to accrue
nutritional benefits," Chakraborty said.
The NIPGR scientists inserted the gene called AmA1 (Amaranth Albumin
1) into seven types of potatoes and then grew the transgenic potatoes
over two years.
They found that there was a 35-60 per cent increase in total protein
content in all varieties of the transgenic potatoes.
The tubers were also found to have increased levels of amino acids,
notably lysine, tyrosine and sulphur, which are usually limited in
Apart from that, the new crop also had more yield per hectare compared
to ordinary potatoes. In field trials, the transgenic plants produced
15 to 25 per cent more potatoes per hectare by weight.
The researchers carried out tests on rats and rabbits and found that
the new crop has no toxic or allergic effects on them.
"This study represents a major technological advance in translational
research in which the engineering of a seed storage protein has led to
nutritional improvement with essentially no negative collateral
effects on crop yield or quality," the researchers said.
"The commercial potential of genetically modified plants depends on
stable integration and expression of the transgene under the different
genotypic backgrounds of host species, on their wider environmental
"Therefore, our strategy may prove to be more acceptable to the
general public than currently used genetically modified crops," they
These potatoes have to be cleared by biotech regulators before
introduction for commercialisation.

Monday, September 20, 2010

Current Parliament Session highlights.....

      Current Parliament Session
      The Monsoon Session, 2010 of Parliament which commenced on Monday, the 26th of July, 2010, concluded on Tuesday, the 31st of August, 2010.  The Session was originally scheduled to conclude on Friday, the 27th of August, 2010 but the sittings of both the Houses were extended by two days i.e. up to Tuesday, the 31st of August, 2010 to transact essential Government Legislative Business.  The Session provided 26 sittings of both the Houses of Parliament spread over a period of 37 days.              
  Addressing the media persons today, the Union Minister for Parliamentary Affairs Shri Pawan kumar Bansalinformed that during the Session, 26 Bills (18 in the Lok Sabha and 08 in the Rajya Sabha) were introduced.  The LokSabha passed 21 Bills (including the minor amendment in trade marks Bill) and the Rajya Sabha passed 24 Bills during the session.  Total number of Bills passed by both Houses of Parliament during the Session is 24One Bill, namely, the Representation of People (Amendment) Bill, 2006 was withdrawn in Rajya Sabha.  Ministers of State for Parliamentary Affairs Shri Prithviraj Chavan and Shri Narayanasamy were also present at the press conference. A list containing the titles of the Bills introduced, and considered and passed during the Session is annexed. 
      The Statutory Resolution seeking approval of the Proclaimation issued by the President on the 1st of June, 2010 under Article 356(1) of the Constitution in relation to State of Jharkhand, was discussed and adopted by both the Houses. Besides a Government Motion on the issues of Population stabilization in the country was also discussed in Lok Sabha.  
      During the Session, Supplementary Demands for Grants (General and Railways) for 2010-11 and Supplementary Demands for Grants relating to the State of Jharkhand for the year 2010-11 and their Appropriation Bills, were discussed and passed by the Lok Sabha. Thereafter, the Rajya Sabha considered and returned these Appropriation Bills. 
      In Lok Sabha, motion regarding inflationary pressure on the economy and its adverse impact on the common man moved by Smt Sushma Swaraj, Leader of Opposition was discussed for about 9 hours spread over two days on August 3 and 4, 2010 and in Rajya Sabha, similar motion moved by Shri Arun Jaitely, Leader of Opposition was discussed for about 8 hours spread over two days on August 4 and 5, 2010. Thereafter, the Chair placed the Resolution urging upon the Government to take further effective action to contain its adverse impact on the common man, which was agreed to by both the Houses.   
      Two Bills replacing the Ordinances, namely, the Indian Medical Council (Amendment) Ordinance, 2010 and the Securities and Insurance Laws (Amendment and Validation) Ordinance, 2010 which were promulgated by the President, were considered and passed by both the Houses of Parliament during the Session. One Bill replacing the Ordinance, namely, the Jharkhand Panchayat Raj (Amendment) Ordinance, 2010, promulgated by the Governor was also considered and passed by both the Houses of parliament. 
      In the Lok Sabha,  Six Short Duration Discussion under Rule 193 were held on (i) delay in preparation for Commonwealth Games, 2010; (ii) Bhopal gas tragedy; (iii) illegal mining; (iv) atrocities against Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes; (v) situation in Jammu and Kashmir; and (vi) flood and drought situation in the country.  In the RajyaSabha, Two Short Duration Discussion under Rule 176 were held on (i) Bhopal gas tragedy; and (ii) illegal mining in the country. Besides, 7 Calling Attentions each in Lok Sabha and Rajya Sabha were discussed.  One Half-an-hour discussion inLok Sabha and two Half-an-hour discussions in Rajya Sabha were also discussed.   
  I      Bills Introduced in Lok Sabha 

      1.      The Securities and Insurance Laws (Amendment and Validation Bill, 2010.
      2.      The Academy of Scientific and Innovative Research Bill, 2010
      3.      The Enemy Property (Amendment and Validation) Bill, 2010
      4.      The New Delhi Municipal Council (Amendment) Bill, 2010
      5.      The Indian Medical Council (Amendment) Bill, 2010
      6.      The Appropriation (No. 4) Bill, 2010
      7.      The Jharkhand Appropriation Bill, 2010
      8.      The Essential Commodities (Amendment) Bill, 2010.
      9.      The Jharkhand Panchayat Raj (Amendment) Bill, 2010
      10.  The Repatriation of Prisoners (Amendment) Bill,2010
      11.  The Appropriation (Railways) No. 4 Bill, 2010
      12.  The Arms (Amendment) Bill, 2010
      13.  The Constitution (One Hundred and Fourteenth Amendment) Bill, 2010 (Amendment of Articles 217 and 224)
      14.  The Salary, Allowances and Pension of Members of Parliament (Amendment) Bill, 2010
      15.  The Public Interest Disclosure and Protection to Persons Making the Disclosures Bill, 2010
      16.  The Dam Safety Bill, 2010
      17.  The Institutes of Technology (Amendment) Bill, 2010
      18.  The Direct Taxes Code Bill, 2010  
  II    Bills Passed by Lok Sabha 

      1.      The Securities and Insurance Laws (Amendment and Validation) Bill,2010
      2.      The State Bank of India (Amendment) Bill, 2010
      3.      The Appropriation (No. 4) Bill, 2010
      4.      The Jharkhand Appropriation Bill, 2010
      5.      The Industrial Disputes (Amendment) Bill, 2010
      6.      The Foreign Trade (Development and Regulation) Amendment Bill,  2010
      7.      The Code of Criminal Procedure (Amendment) Bill, 2010.
      8.      The Indian Medical Council ( Amendment) Bill,2010
      9.      The Trade Marks (Amendment) Bill, 2010
      10.  The Essential Commodities )Amendment) Bill,2010
      11.  The Jharkhand Panchayat Raj (Amendment)Bill, 2010
      12.  The Appropriation (Railways) No. 4 Bill, 2010
      13.  The Personal Laws (Amendment) Bill, 2010
      14.  The Mines and Minerals (Development and Regulation) Amendment Bills, 2010
      15.  The Civil Liability for Nuclear Damage Bill, 2010
      16.  The Nalanda University Bill, 2010
      17.  The Educational Tribunals Bill, 2010
      18.  The Foreign Contribution (Regulation) Bill, 2010
      19.  The Salary, Allowances and Pension of Members of Parliament (Amendment) Bill, 2010
      20.  The Indian Medicine Central Council Bill, 2010
      21.  The Representation of the People (Amendment) Bill, 2010  
  III  - Bills Introduced in Rajya Sabha 

      1.      The Marriage Laws (Amendment) Bill, 2010
      2.      The Jawaharlal Institute of Post-Graduate Medical Education and Research, Puducherry (Amendment) Bill, 2010
      3.      The Central Educational Institutions (Reservation in Admission) Amendment Bill, 2010
      4.      The Nalanda University Bill, 2010
      5.      The Anti-Hijacking (Amendment) Bill, 2010
      6.      The Representation of the People (Amendment) Bill, 2010
      7.      The Architects (Amendment) Bill, 2010
      8.      The Prasar Bharati (Broadcasting Corporation of India)  Amendment Bill, 2010  
  IV -  Bills Passed by Rajya Sabha 

      1.      The Industrial Disputes (Amendment) Bill, 2009
      2.      The Clinical Establishment (Registration & Regulation) Bill, 2010
      3.      The National Commission for Minority Educational Institutions (Amendment) Bill, 2010
      4.      The Securities and Insurance Laws (Amendment and Validation) Bill, 2010
      5.      The Foreign Trade (Development and Regulation) Amendment Bill, 2009
      6.      The Trade Marks (Amendment) Bill, 2009
      7.      The Jharkhand Appropriation Bill, 2010
      8.      The Appropriation (No.4) Bill, 2010
      9.      The State Bank of India (Amendment) Bill, 2010
      10.  The Mines and Minerals (Development and Regulation) Amendment Bill, 2008
      11.  The Personal Laws (Amendment) Bill 2010
      12.  The Energy Conservation (Amendment) Bill, 2010
      13.  The Foreign Contribution (Regulation) Bill, 2006
      14.  The Land Ports Authority of India Bill, 2010
      15.  The Appropriation (Railways) No.4 Bill, 2010
      16.  The Nalanda University Bill,2010
      17.  The Jharkhand Panchayat Raj (Amendment) Bill, 2010
      18.  The Indian Medicine Central Council (Amendment) Bill, 2010.
      19.  The Indian Medical Council (Amendment) Bill, 2010
      20.  The Code of Criminal Procedure (Amendment) Bill, 2010
      21.  The Essential Commodities (Amendment) Bill, 2010
      22.  The Civil Liability for Nuclear Damage Bill, 2010
      23.  The Representation of People (Amendment) Bill, 2010
      24.  The Salary, Allowances and Pension of Members of Parliament (Amendment) Bill, 2010  
  V - Bills passed by Both Houses 

      1.      The Clinical Establishment (Registration & Regulation) Bill, 2010
      2.      The National Commission for Minority Educational Institutions (Amendment) Bill, 2010
      3.      The Securities and Insurance Laws (Amendment and Validation) Bill,2010
      4.      The Industrial Disputes (Amendment) Bill, 2010
      5.      The Trade Marks (Amendment) Bill, 2009
      6.      The Jharkhand Appropriation Bill, 2010
      7.      The Appropriation (No. 4) Bill, 2010
      8.      The State Bank of India (Amendment) Bill, 2010
      9.      The Foreign Trade (Development and Regulation) Amendment Bill,  2010
      1.      The Energy Conservation (Amendment) Bill, 2010
      2.      The Land Ports Authority of India Bill, 2010
      3.      The Appropriation (Railways) No. 4 Bill, 2010
      4.      The Personal Laws (Amendment) Bill, 2010
      5.      The Mines and Minerals (Development and Regulation) Amendment Bills, 2010
      6.      The Jharkhand Panchayat Raj (Amendment)Bill, 2010
      7.      The Nalanda University Bill, 2010
      8.      The Indian Medical Council ( Amendment) Bill,2010
      9.      The Foreign Contribution (Regulation) Bill, 2010
      10.  The Code of Criminal Procedure (Amendment) Bill, 2010.
      11.  The Essential Commodities )Amendment) Bill,2010
      12.  The Civil Liability for Nuclear Damage Bill, 2010
      13.  The Salary, Allowances and Pension of Members of Parliament (Amendment) Bill, 2010
      14.  The Indian Medicine Central Council Bill, 2010
      15.  The Representation of the People (Amendment) Bill, 2010

Sub-Inspectors (Health Deptt.) Exam General Awareness

Sub-Inspectors (Health Deptt.) Exam
General Awareness

1. Jaspal Rana is a distinguished athlete in which of the following games ?
(A) Swimming
(B) Weightlifting
(C) Shooting
(D) Archery
Ans : (C)

2. 'The Dronacharya Award' is associated with—
(A) Eminent Surgeons
(B) Famous Artists
(C) Sport Coaches
(D) Expert Engineers
Ans : (C)

3. The author of 'Gitagovinda' was—
(A) Halayudha
(B) Jayadeva
(C) Kalhana
(D) Jona-Raja
Ans : (B)

4. Who wrote the book 'India Wins Freedom' ?
(A) Maulana Abul Kalam Azad
(B) Mahatma Gandhi
(C) Sir Mohammad Iqbal
(D) Abdul Gaffar Khan
Ans : (A)

5. Baba Amte is famous as a ………
(A) Painter
(B) Singer
(C) Politician
(D) Social Worker
Ans : (D)

6. Who was the first woman Governor of an Indian State ?
(A) Sushila Nayar
(B) Sucheta Kriplani
(C) Sarojini Naidu
(D) Sulochan Modi
Ans : (C)

7. Who is the first non-Indian to receive the Bharat Ratna ?
(A) Martin Luther King
(B) Zubin Mehta
(C) Mother Teresa
(D) Khan Abdul Ghaffar Khan
Ans : (D)

8. Dr. M.S. Subbulakshmi has distinguished herself in the field of—
(A) Kathak
(B) Bharathanatyam
(C) Playing Violin
(D) Vocal Music
Ans : (D)

9. Which of the following is not correctly matched ?
(A) Ravi Shankar–Sitarist
(B) M.F. Hussain–Tabla
(C) R.K. Narayan–Novelist
(D) Kaifi Azmi–Poet
Ans : (B)

10. Who said, "You give me blood, I will give you freedom" ?
(A) Mahatma Gandhi
(B) Bal Gangadhar Tilak
(C) Subhash Chandra Bose
(D) Bhagat Singh
Ans : (C)

11. Nobel Prizes are not given for which of the following fields ?
(A) Physics
(B) Chemistry
(C) Peace
(D) Music
Ans : (D)

12. When is the 'International Women's Day' observed ?
(A) March 8
(B) February 14
(C) May 10
(D) October 2
Ans : (A)

13. Indra Nooyi is the Chief Executive Officer of which company ?
(A) Pepsi
(B) Coca Cola
(C) LG
(D) Samsung
Ans : (A)

14. The 2008 Olympics will be held in—
(A) London
(B) Sydney
(C) Beijing
(D) Seoul
Ans : (C)

15. 6th April, 1930 is well known in the history of India because this date is associated with ……
(A) Dandi March by Mahatma Gandhi
(B) Quit India Movement
(C) Partition of Bengal
(D) Partition of India
Ans : (A)

16. The concept of 'Din-e-Elahi' was founded by which king ?
(A) Dara Shikoh
(B) Akbar
(C) Shershah Suri
(D) Shahjahan
Ans : (B)

17. The central point in Ashoka's Dharma was—
(A) Loyalty to kings
(B) Peace and non-violence
(C) Respect to elders
(D) Religious toleration
Ans : (D)

18. Mahatma Gandhi for the first time practised his Satyagraha in India at—
(A) Chauri-Chaura
(B) Ahmedabad
(C) Champaran
(D) Nauokhali
Ans : (C)

19. 'Do or Die' was one of the most powerful slogans of India's freedom struggle. Who gave it ?
(A) Gandhiji
(B) J.L. Nehru
(C) Balgangadhar Tilak
(D) Subhash Chandra Bose
Ans : (A)

20. Who among the following formed a party named as 'Forward Block' ?
(A) Subhash Chandra Bose
(B) Sardar Bhagat Singh
(C) Chandrashekhar Azad
(D) J.L. Nehru
Ans : (A)

21. Where are the Dilwara Temple's located ?
(A) Shravana Belgola
(B) Parasnath Hills
(C) Indore
(D) Mt. Abu
Ans : (D)

22. Who was the first Indian lady to preside over the Congress ?
(A) Rajkumari Amrit Kaur
(B) Annie Besant
(C) Vijaylakshmi Pandit
(D) Amrita Shergill
Ans : (B)

23. In India, there are three crop seasons. Two of them are Kharif and Rabi, name the third one ?
(A) Barsati
(B) Grama
(C) Zaid
(D) Khari
Ans : (C)

24. In India agriculture of jute is maximum on which Delta area ?
(A) Ganga
(B) Mahanadi
(C) Brahamputra
(D) Godavari
Ans : (A)

25. The most discussed Tehri Dam Project is located in which of the following States ?
(A) Madhya Pradesh
(B) Rajasthan
(C) Haryana
(D) Uttarakhand
Ans : (D)

Clerical Cadre Recruitment Exam-Marketing Aptitude / Computer Knowledge

Clerical Cadre Recruitment Exam

Marketing Aptitude / Computer Knowledge
161. Cross-selling covers—
(A) Identifying customer needs
(B) Matching the Products to customer needs
(C) Convincing the customers of Product benefits
(D) Responding to questions and objections of customers
(E) All of these
162. A Prospect means—
(A) Any customer who walks into the Bank
(B) An employee of the Bank
(C) A customer who is likely to be interested in Bank's Product or service
(D) A Depositor of the Bank
(E) A Borrower of the Bank
163. A Lead means—
(A) A Prospect who is more likely to avail of the Bank's Product
(B) A Political Leader
(C) A Religious Leader
(D) A Bank Chairman
(E) None of these 164. Innovation means—
(A) Compensation
(B) Inspiration
(C) Additional perquisites
(D) Implementing new ideas or new methods
(E) None of these
165. A Call means—
(A) Calling on friends
(B) Calling on Bank employees
(C) Calling on Prospective customers
(D) To make telephone calls
(E) Calling on relatives
166. The Traditional Marketing style involves—
(A) Telemarketing
(B) Digital Marketing
(C) Indirect Marketing
(D) Direct Marketing
(E) All of these
167. Modern methods of Marketing include—
(A) Publicity on the net
(B) Advertisement on the net
(C) Soliciting business through e-mails
(D) Telemarketing
(E) All of these
168. A true marketing mindset requires—
(A) Command and order mindset
(B) Control mindset
(C) Active mindset
(D) Passive mindset
(E) None of these
169. Which of the following sentences is True ?
(A) Marketing is not required in a Buyers' Market
(B) Marketing is not required in a Sellers' Market
(C) Marketing is not required due to globalization
(D) Marketing is not required due to competition
(E) Marketing is not required due to liberalization
170. For effective marketing, the salesmen should have which of these qualities—
(A) Creativity
(B) Team spirit
(C) Motivation
(D) Effective communication skills
(E) All of these
171. Market information means—
(A) Knowledge of shops and bazaars
(B) Knowledge of shopping malls
(C) Knowledge of customer profile and product mix
(D) Knowledge of various languages
(E) None of these
172. Market Research is needed for—
(A) Deciding the market area
(B) Deciding the right product to be sold
(C) Making proper marketing decisions
(D) Deciding right time to sell
(E) All of these
173. Which of the following statements is True ?
(A) Marketing makes the Company to go into loss due to higher expenses
(B) Marketing is not required in profit-making companies
(C) Marketing sharpens the minds of the employees
(D) Marketing is a time-bound seasonal function
(E) Marketing is a waste of time
174. Marketing Plan helps in—
(A) Better lead generation
(B) Better systems
(C) Better results
(D) Improved Balance Sheet
(E) Better customer service
175. If Marketing is done effectively, which of the following is not required—
(A) Advertisement
(B) Publicity
(C) Market Research
(D) Market Segmentation
(E) None of these
176. Motivation means—
(A) Inspiring employees to perform better
(B) Better Communication Skills
(C) Sales coaching
(D) Market Research
(E) None of these
177. In a Selling Process in today's world—
(A) Only standard products are sold
(B) No customization required
(C) The Seller need not have product knowledge
(D) The Seller should aim at customer satisfaction
(E) Only quantum of sales matters
178. Find the True statement—
(A) Marketing is a waste of the employees' time
(B) Marketing is not required in India due to its vast population
(C) Marketing involves additional work
(D) Marketing involves team work
(E) Marketing is not required today due to IT advancement
179. A Target Market is—
(A) Entire country
(B) Entire city
(C) Entire globe
(D) That which consists of customers who need the identified product
(E) All of these
180. Sales forecasting involves—
(A) Sales Planning
(B) Sales pricing
(C) Distribution Channels
(D) Consumer tastes
(E) All of these
181. How many options does a binary choice offer ?
(A) None
(B) One
(C) Two
(D) It depends on the amount of memory in the computer
(E) It depends on the speed of the computer's processor
182. Data going into the computer is called—
(A) Output
(B) Algorithm
(C) Input
(D) Calculations
(E) Flowchart
183. How many values can be represented by a single byte ?
(A) 4
(B) 16
(C) 64
(D) 256
(E) 512
184. Transformation of input into output is performed by—
(A) Peripherals
(B) Memory
(C) Storage
(D) The Input-Output unit
(E) The CPU
185. Device drivers are—
(A) Tiny power cords for external storage devices
(B) Experts who know how to maximize the performance of devices
(C) Small, special-purpose programs
(D) The innermost part of the operating system
(E) Substitutes for operating system
186. A collection of programs that controls how your computer system runs and processes information is called—
(A) Operating system
(B) Computer
(C) Office
(D) Compiler
(E) Interpreter
187. Which of the following refers to a small, single-site network ?
188. A set of instructions telling the computer what to do is called—
(A) Mentor(B) Instructor
(C) Compiler(D) Program
(E) Debugger
189. If you receive an e-mail from someone you don't know, what should you do ?
(A) Forward it to the police immediately
(B) Delete it without opening it
(C) Open it and respond to them saying you don't know them
(D) Reply and ask them for their personal information
(E) Reply and tell them you want to keep in touch with them
190. Which of the following can handle most system functions that aren't handled directly by the operating system ?
(A) Vertical-market applications
(B) Utilities
(C) Algorithms
(D) Integrated software
(E) Compilers
191. Microsoft Office is—
(A) Shareware
(B) Public-domain software
(C) Open-source software
(D) A vertical-market application
(E) An application suite
192. Computers connected to a LAN (Local Area Network) can—
(A) Run faster
(B) Go on line
(C) Share information and/or share peripheral equipment
(D) E-mail
(E) None of these
193. Which of the following refers to the memory in your computer ?
194. Information travels between components on the motherboard through—
(A) Flash memory (B) CMOS
(C) Bays (D) Buses
(E) Peripherals
195. One megabyte equals approximately—
(A) 1,000 bits
(B) 1,000 bytes
(C) 1 million bytes
(D) 1 million bits
(E) 2,000 bytes
196. When you are working on a document on a PC, where is the document temporarily stored ?
(C) The CPU
(D) Flash memory
(E) The CD-ROM
197. How are data organized in a spreadsheet ?
(A) Lines and spaces
(B) Layers and planes
(C) Height and width
(D) Rows and columns
(E) None of these
198. Magnetic tape is not practical for applications where data must be quickly recalled because tape is—
(A) A random-access medium
(B) A sequential-access medium
(C) A read-only medium
(D) Fragile and easily damaged
(E) An expensive storage medium
199. The blinking symbol on the computer screen is called the—
(A) Mouse
(B) Logo
(C) Hand
(D) Palm
(E) Cursor
200. When cutting and pasting, the item cut is temporarily stored in—
(B) Hard drive
(C) Diskette
(D) Dashboard
(E) Clipboard
161.(B) 162. (C) 163. (A) 164. (D)165.(C) 166. (C) 167. (E) 168. (A)
169.(B) 170. (E) 171. (C) 172. (E)173.(E) 174. (E) 175. (B) 176. (A)
177.(D) 178. (D) 179. (D) 180. (E)181.(C) 182. (C) 183. (E) 184. (E)
185.(D) 186. (B) 187. (A) 188. (D)189.(B) 190. (A) 191. (E) 192. (C)
193.(A) 194. (D) 195. (C) 196. (A)197.(D) 198. (E) 199. (E) 200. (E)

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