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Monday, July 26, 2010

[Banks papers , Gov jobs , Gk, English ,Reasoning ,Math] Reasoning

Directions—(Q. 1-5) In the following each question there are two statements and two conclusions I and II there-after are given. Accept the given statements as true even if they are inconsistent with known facts and ignoring the universally known facts find out which conclusion follows logically from the given statements.
Give answer (A) if only the conclusion I follows.
Give answer (B) if only the conclusion II follows.
Give answer (C) if either the conclusion I or the II follows.
Give answer (D) if neither the conclusion I nor the II follows.
Give answer (E) if the conclusions I and II both follow.

1. Statements: All faxes are alligators.
Some alligators are jackals.
Conclusions:
I. Some faxes are jackals.
II. All faxes are jackals.
Ans : (D)

2. Statements: Some pen are fire-works.
All fire-works are toys.
Conclusions:
I. Some toys are men.
II. Some toys are fire-works.
Ans : (E)

3. Statements: All herons are parrots.
No parrot is swan.
Conclusions:
I. No heron is swan.
II. Some swans are herons.
Ans : (A)

4. Statements: Some bats are cats.
Some cats are dogs.
Conclusions:
I. Some bats are dogs.
II. Some dogs are bats.
Ans : (D)

5. Statements: All writers are novelists.
Some novelists are dramatists.
Conclusions:
I. Some writers are dramatists.
II. Some dramatists are novelists.
Ans : (D)


6. Introducing Priyanka, Saroj says that her mother is the only daughter of my mother. How is Saroj related to Priyanka ?
(A) Mother
(B) Sister
(C) Daughter
(D) Aunt
(E) None of these
Ans : (A)

7. Pointing to a picture of a child Narendra says, "The brother of this child's mother, is the only son of my mother's father." How is Narendra related to the mother of the child?
(A) Daughter
(B) Sister
(C) Maternal grand mother
(D) Aunt
(E) None of these
Ans : (E)

8. Pointing to a lady in the photograph Kaushal said, "She is the daughter of the daughter of the only son of my grand father." How is the lady related to Kaushal ?
(A) Sister
(B) Maternal aunt
(C) Niece
(D) Cousin
(E) None of these
Ans : (C)

9. Pointing to Manju, Gaurav said, "She is the wife of the only son of my father's father." How is Manju related to Gaurav ?
(A) Mother
(B) Sister
(C) Aunt
(D) Sister-in-law
(E) None of these
Ans : (A)

10. A lady pointing to a man in photograph says, "The father of his brother is the only son of my maternal grand father." How is the man related to that lady?
(A) Husband
(B) Son
(C) Father
(D) Maternal uncle
(E) None of these
Ans : (E)

11. A lady pointing to a man in a photograph says, "The sister of the son of this man is my mother-in-law." How is the husband of the lady related to the man in the photograph?
(A) Maternal grand son
(B) Nephew
(C) Son
(D) Maternal grand father
(E) None of these
Ans : (A)

12. Kamini says, "Rajeev's grand father is the only son of my father." How is Kamini related to Rajeev ?
(A) Daughter
(B) Sister
(C) Niece
(D) Grand mother
(E) None of these
Ans : (D)

13. Introducing a man, a woman says, "He is the only son of my mother's mother." How is the man related to the woman ?
(A) Uncle
(B) Father
(C) Maternal uncle
(D) Uncle
(E) None of these
Ans : (C)

14. Pointing a woman, Mahendra says, "The only son of her mother is my father." How is Mahendra related to the woman ?
(A) Nephew
(B) Brother
(C) Son
(D) Grandson
(E) None of these
Ans : (A)

15. Pointing to Kalpna, Arjun says, "She is the only daughter of my father-in-law." How is Kalpna related to Arjun ?
(A) Daughter
(B) Niece
(C) Wife
(D) Daughter-in-law
(E) None of these
Ans : (C)

16. Pointing to a man Snehlata says, "He is the only son of my father's father." How is Snehlata related to the man ?
(A) Mother
(B) Grand daughter
(C) Niece
(D) Sister
(E) None of these
Ans : (E)

17. Pointing to a lady in photograph, Madhurendra said, "Her mother is the only daughter of my mother's mother." How is Madhurendra related to the lady?
(A) Nephew
(B) Uncle
(C) Maternal uncle
(D) Brother
(E) None of these
Ans : (D)

18. If P x Q means— 'P is the brother of Q', P ÷ Q means 'P is the son of Q' and 'P – Q' means 'P is the sister of Q' , then which of the following relations will show that Q is the maternal uncle of P ?
(A) Q x R ÷ P
(B) Q ÷ R – P
(C) P x R – Q
(D) P ÷ R – Q
(E) None of these
Ans : (D)

19. A lady pointing to a woman in a photograph says, "She is the only daughter of my father-in-law." How is the woman related to the lady?
(A) Mother
(B) Sister
(C) Friend
(D) Aunt
(E) None of these
Ans : (E)

20. Pointing to a woman in a photograph a man says, "Her mother's mother is the mother of my father." How is the man related to the woman in a photograph?
(A) Uncle
(B) Maternal cousin
(C) Nephew
(D) Grand son
(E) None of these
Ans : (B)

21. If x means –, – means x, + means ÷ and ÷ means + then—
13 – 12 ÷ 400 + 20 x 100 = ?
(A) 1/1760
(B) 76
(C) 176
(D) 186
(E) None of these
Ans : (B)

22. If – means ÷, ÷ means –, + means x and x means +, then—
12 – 4 x 7 + 8 ÷ 5 = ?
(A) 51
(B) 45
(C) 34
(D) 64
(E) None of these
Ans : (E)

23. If + means x, x means +, – means ÷ and ÷ means –, then—
16 x 2 ÷ 4 + 7 – 8 = ?
(A) 31
(B) 29/2
(C) 43/2
(D) 15
(E) None of these
Ans : (B)

24. If + means ÷, ÷ means –, – means x and x means +, then—
64 + 8 ÷ 6 – 4 x 2 = ?
(A) 34
(B) 16
(C) –14
(D) 24
(E) None of these
Ans : (C)

25. If + means –, – means x, x means ÷ and ÷ means +, then—
48 x 4 ÷ 7 + 8 – 2 = ?
(A) 3
(B) –5
(C) 35
(D) 16
(E) None of these
Ans : (A).

Tiger Woods Tops List of Best-Paid Athletes in U.S.

While baseball is the most popular sport in Korea, with an average annual salary of W86.87 million per player it is not the highest paying (US$1=W1,205). That honor goes to basketball, where players earn an average of W132.18 million each.

What about the world's largest sports market, the U.S.? In a list by Sports Illustrated of America's 50 highest-earning athletes, 16 of them play in the National Basketball Association, 15 are in the National Football League, and 13 Major League Baseball players.

LeBron James, who recently moved to the Miami Heat, was the top earner in the NBA and fourth overall with income of US$45.8 million last year. Three other NBA players made it in the top 10 -- Shaquille O'Neal (6th), Kobe Bryant (7th) and Dwayne Wade (10th).

Only two baseball players, Derek Jeter and Alex Rodriguez, both of the New York Yankees, placed in the top 10.

The richest among the rich was Tiger Woods, having pulled in $90.51 million last year despite his extramarital affair scandal, edging out fellow golfer Phil Mickelson who took home $61.67 million.

Wednesday, July 21, 2010

Rivers In Rajasthan राजस्थान की नदियां

Rivers In Rajasthan राजस्थान की नदियां

 

माही नदी




१) चम्बल नदी -
इस नदी का प्राचीन नाम चर्मावती है। कुछ स्थानों पर इसे कामधेनु भी कहा जाता है। यह नदी मध्य प्रदेश के मऊ के दक्षिण में मानपुर के समीप जनापाव पहाड़ी (६१६ मीटर ऊँची) के विन्ध्यन कगारों के उत्तरी पार्श्व से निकलती है। अपने उदगम् स्थल से ३२५ किलोमीटर उत्तर दिशा की ओर एक लंबे संकीर्ण मार्ग से तीव्रगति से प्रवाहित होती हुई चौरासीगढ़ के समीप राजस्थान में प्रवेश करती है। यहां से कोटा तक लगभग ११३ किलोमीटर की दूरी एक गार्ज से बहकर तय करती है। चंबल नदी पर भैंस रोड़गढ़ के पास प्रख्यात चूलिया प्रपात है। यह नदी राजस्थान के कोटा, बून्दी, सवाई माधोपुर व धौलपुर जिलों में बहती हुई उत्तर-प्रदेश के इटावा जिले मुरादगंज स्थान में यमुना में मिल जाती है। यह राजस्थान की एक मात्र ऐसी नदी है जो सालोंभर बहती है। इस नदी पर गांधी सागर, राणा प्रताप सागर, जवाहर सागर और कोटा बैराज बांध बने हैं। ये बाँध सिंचाई तथा विद्युत ऊर्जा के प्रमुख स्रोत हैं। चम्बल की प्रमुख सहायक नदियों में काली, सिन्ध, पार्वती, बनास, कुराई तथा बामनी है। इस नदी की कुल लंबाई ९६५ किलोमीटर है। यह राजस्थान में कुल ३७६ किलोमीटर तक बहती है।

२) काली सिंध -


यह चंबल की सहायक नदी है। इस नदी का उदगम् स्थल मध्य प्रदेश में देवास के निकट बागली गाँव है। कुध दूर मध्य प्रदेश में बहने के बाद यह राजस्थान के झालावाड़ और कोटा जिलों में बहती है। अंत में यह नोनेरा (बरण) गांव के पास चंबल नदी में मिल जाती है। इसकी कुल लंबाई २७८ किलोमीटर है।

३) बनास नदी -


बनास एक मात्र ऐसी नदी है जो संपूर्ण चक्र राजस्थान में ही पूरा करती है। बनअआस अर्थात बनास अर्थात (वन की आशा) के रुप में जानी जाने वाली यह नदी उदयपुर जिले के अरावली पर्वत श्रेणियों में कुंभलगढ़ के पास खमनौर की पहाड़ियों से निकलती है। यह नाथद्वारा, कंकरोली, राजसमंद और भीलवाड़ा जिले में बहती हुई टौंक, सवाई माधोपुर के पश्चात रामेश्वरम के नजदीक (सवाई माधोपुर) चंबल में गिर जाती है। इसकी लंबाई लगभग ४८० किलोमीटर है। इसकी सहायक नदियों में बेडच, कोठरी, मांसी, खारी, मुरेल व धुन्ध है। (i )बेडच नदी १९० किलोमीटर लंबी है तथा गोगंडा पहाड़ियों (उदयपुर) से निकलती है। (ii )कोठारी नदी उत्तरी राजसामंद जिले के दिवेर पहाड़ियों से निकलती है। यह १४५ किलोमीटर लंबी है तथा यह उदयपुर, भीलवाड़ा में बहती हुई बनास में मिल जाती है।(iii) खारी नदी ८० किलोमीटर लंबी है तथा राजसामंद के बिजराल की पहाड़ियों से निकलकर देवली (टौंक) के नजदीक बनास में मिल जाती है।

४) बाणगंगा -


इस नदी का उदगम् स्थल जयपुर की वैराठ की पहाड़ियों से है। इसकी कुल लंबाई ३८० किलोमीटर है तथा यह सवाई माधोपुर, भरतपुर में बहती हुई अंत में फतेहा बाद (आगरा) के समीप यमुना में मिल जाती है। इस नदी पर रामगढ़ के पास एक बांध बनाकर जयपुर को पेय जल की आपूर्ति की जाती है।

५) पार्वती नदी -


यह चंबल की एक सहायक नदी है। इसका उदगम् स्थल मध्य प्रदेश के विंध्यन श्रेणी के पर्वतों से है तथा यह उत्तरी ढाल से बहती है। यह नदी करया हट (कोटा) स्थान के समीप राजस्थान में प्रवेश करती है और बून्दी जिले में बहती हुई चंबल में गिर जाती है।

६) गंभीरी नदी -


११० किलोमीटर लंबी यह नदी सवाई माधोपुर की पहाड़ियों से निकलकर करौली से बहती हुई भरतपुर से आगरा जिले में यमुना में गिर जाती है।

७) लूनी नदी -


यह नदी अजमेर के नाग पहाड़-पहाड़ियों से निकलकर नागौर की ओर बहती है। यह जोधपुर, बाड़मेर और जालौर में बहती हुई यह गुजरात में प्रवेश करती है। अंत में कच्छ की खाड़ी में गिर जाती है। लूनी नदी की कुल लंबाई ३२० किलोमीटर है। यह पूर्णत: मौसमी नदी है। बलोतरा तक इसका जल मीठा रहता है लेकिन आगे जाकर यह खारा होता जाता है। इस नदी में अरावली श्रृंखला के पश्चिमी ढाल से कई छोटी-छोटी जल धाराएँ, जैसे लालरी, गुहिया, बांड़ी, सुकरी जबाई, जोजरी और सागाई निकलकर लूनी नदी में मिल जाती है। इस नदी पर बिलाड़ा के निकट का बाँध सिंचाई के लिए महत्वपूर्ण है।

८) मादी नदी -


यह दक्षिण राजस्थान मुख्यत: बांसबाड़ा और डूंगरपुर जिले की मुख्य नदी है। यह मध्य प्रदेश के धार जिले में विंध्यांचल पर्वत के अममाऊ स्थान से निकलती है। उदगम् से उत्तर की ओर बहने के पश्चात् खाछू गांव (बांसबाड़ा) के निकट दक्षिणी राजस्थान में प्रवेश करती है। बांसबाड़ा और डूंगरपूर में बहती हुई यह नदी गुजरात में प्रवेश करती है। कुल ५७६ किलोमीटर बहने के पश्चात् यह खम्भात की खाड़ी में गिर जाती है। इसकी प्रमुख सहायक नदियों में सोम, जाखम, अनास, चाप और मोरन है। इस नदी पर बांसबाड़ा जिले में माही बजाज सागर बांध बनाया गया है।

९) धग्धर नदी -


यह गंगानगर जिले की प्रमुख नदी है। यह नदी हिमालय पर्वत की शिवालिक श्रेणियों से शिमला के समीप कालका के पास से निकलती है। यह अंबाला, पटियाला और हिसार जिलों में बहती हुई राजस्थान के गंगानगर जिले में टिब्वी के समीप उत्तर-पूर्व दिशा में प्रवेश करती है। पूर्व में यह बीकानेर राज्य में बहती थी लेकिन अब यह हनुमानगढ़ के पश्चिम में लगभग ३ किलोमीटर दूर तक बहती है।
हनुमानगढ़ के पास भटनेर के मरुस्थलीय भाग में बहती हुई विलीन हो जाती है। इस नदी की कुल लंबाई ४६५ किलोमीटर है। इस नदी को प्राचीन सरस्वती के नाम से भी जाना जाता है।

१०) काकनी नदी -


इस नदी को काकनेय तथा मसूरदी नाम से भी बुलाते है। यह नदी जैसलमेर से लगभग २७ किलोमीटर दूर दक्षिण में कोटरी गाँव से निकलती है। यह कुछ किलोमीटर प्रवाहित होने के उपरांत लुप्त हो जाती है। वर्षा अधिक होने पर यह काफी दूर तक बहती है। इसका पानी अंत में भुज झील में गिर जाता है।

११) सोम नदी -


उदयपुर जिले के बीछा मेड़ा स्थान से यह नदी निकलती है। प्रारंभ में यह दक्षिण-पूर्व दिशा में बहती हुई डूंगरपूर की सीमा के साथ-साथ पूर्व में बहती हुई बेपेश्वर के निकट माही नदी से मिल जाती है।

१२) जोखम -


यह नदी सादड़ी के निकट से निकलती है। प्रतापगढ़ जिले में बहती हुई उदयपुर के धारियाबाद तहसील में प्रवेश करती है और सोम नदी से मिल जाती है।

१३) साबरमती -


यह गुजरात की मुख्य नदी है परंतु यह २९ किलोमीटर राजस्थान के उदयपुर जिले में बहती है। यह नदी पड़रारा, कुंभलगढ़ के निकट से निकलकर दक्षिण की ओर बहती है। इस नदी की कुल लंबाई ३१७ किलोमीटर है।

१४) काटली नदी -


सीकर जिले के खंडेला पहाड़ियों से यह नदी निकलती है। यह मौसमी नदी है और तोरावाटी उच्च भूमि पर यह प्रवाहित होती है। यह उत्तर में सींकर व झुंझुनू में लगभग १०० किलोमीटर बहने के उपरांत चुरु जिले की सीमा के निकट अदृश्य हो जाती है।

१५) साबी नदी -


यह नदी जयपुर जिले के सेवर पहाड़ियों से निकलकर मानसू, बहरोड़, किशनगढ़, मंडावर व तिजारा तहसीलों में बहने के बाद गुडगाँव (हरियाणा) जिले के कुछ दूर प्रवाहित होने के बाद पटौदी के उत्तर में भूमिगत हो जाती है।

१६) मन्था नदी -

यह जयपुर जिले में मनोहरपुर के निकट से निकलकर अंत में सांभर झील में जा मिलती है।

जिलानुसार राजस्थान की नदियां

१) अजमेर - साबरमती, सरस्वती, खारी, ड़ाई, बनास
२) अलवर - साबी, रुपाढेल, काली, गौरी, सोटा
३) बाँसबाड़ा - माही, अन्नास, चैणी
४) बाड़मेर - लूनी, सूंकड़ी
५) भरतपुर - चम्बल, बराह, बाणगंगा, गंभीरी, पार्वती
६) भीलवाडा - बनास, कोठारी, बेडच, मेनाली, मानसी, खारी
७) बीकानेर - कोई नदी नही
८) बूंदी – कुराल
९) चुरु - कोई नदी नही
१०) धौलपुर – चंबल
११) डूंगरपुर - सोम, माही, सोनी
१२) श्रीगंगानगर – धग्धर
१३) जयपुर - बाणगंगा, बांड़ी, ढूंढ, मोरेल, साबी, सोटा, डाई, सखा, मासी
१४) जैसलमेर - काकनेय, चांघण, लाठी, धऊआ, धोगड़ी
१५) जालौर - लूनी, बांड़ी, जवाई, सूकड़ी
१६) झालावाड़ - काली सिन्ध, पर्वती, छौटी काली सिंध, निवाज
१७) झुंझुनू - काटली
१८) जोधपुर - लूनी, माठड़ी, जोजरी
१९) कोटा - चम्बल, काली सिंध, पार्वती, आऊ निवाज, परवन
२०) नागौर – लूनी
२१) पाली - लीलड़ी, बांडी, सूकड़ी जवाई
२२) सवाई माधोपुर - चंबल, बनास, मोरेल
२३) सीकर - काटली, मन्था, पावटा, कावंट
२४) सिरोही - प. बनास, सूकड़ी, पोसालिया, खाती, किशनावती, झूला, सुरवटा
२५) टोंक - बनास, मासी, बांडी
२६) उदयपुर - बनास, बेडच, बाकल, सोम, जाखम, साबरमती
२७) चित्तौडगढ़ - वनास, बेडच, बामणी, बागली, बागन, औराई, गंभीरी, सीवान, जाखम, माही।

S.S.C. Tax Assistant Exam. Solved Paper

S.S.C. Tax Assistant Exam., 2008
(Held on 29-3-2009)
General Awareness : Solved Paper

1. Who was the first Indian woman to scale the Mount Everest ?
(A) Bachhendri Pal
(B) Phew Dorajee
(C) Onn Saang Su Kayi
(D) Yoko Ono
Ans : (A)

2. Epicentre is concerned with—
(A) Earthquake
(B) Volcano
(C) Cyclone
(D) Land-sliding
Ans : (A)

3. Name of S. Chandrashekhar is associated with which of the following subjects ?
(A) Cosmology
(B) Chemistry
(C) Fluid Mechanics
(D) Astrophysics
Ans : (D)

4. Which scale is used to measure the intensity of earthquake ?
(A) Richter
(B) Metric
(C) Centigrade
(D) Newton
Ans : (A)

5. Who was the only Indian woman to be elected as the President of U.N. General Assembly ?
(A) Vijayalakshmi Pandit
(B) V. K. Krishna Menon
(C) Jawaharlal Nehru
(D) Rajeshwar Dayal
Ans : (A)

6. Sea-coast of which of the following states is the longest ?
(A) Andhra Pradesh
(B) Maharashtra
(C) Orissa
(D) Tamil Nadu
Ans : (A)

7. 'RAF' is the abbreviated form of which of the following ?
(A) Ready Action Force
(B) Rapid Action Force
(C) Reverse Action Force
(D) Repeat Action Force
Ans : (B)

8. Bolometer is used to measure which of the following ?
(A) Frequency
(B) Temperature
(C) Velocity
(D) Wavelength
Ans : (B)

9. Tehri dam is built on which of the following rivers ?
(A) Ganga
(B) Brahmputra
(C) Bhagirathi
(D) Yamuna
Ans : (C)

10. Which of the following is incorrect ?
(A) AIDS is a retroviral disease
(B) AIDS disease spreads due to homosexual and bisexual relations
(C) AIDS was first diagnosed in 1981 in USA
(D) Due to AIDS, ano-genetal warts are formed
Ans : (C)

11. Who lost the AFC (Asian Football Confederation Final, 2008 to India) ?
(A) Myanmar
(B) Sri Lanka
(C) Pakistan
(D) Tajikistan
Ans : (D)

12. Who won the U.S. Open Tennis Men's Singles in August 2008 ?
(A) Roger Federer
(B) Rafael Nadal
(C) Mahesh Bhupati
(D) None of the above
Ans : (A)

13. After the terrorist attack of 26th November, 2008 in Mumbai, who was appointed as the Home Minister of India ?
(A) Sh. Shivraj Patil
(B) Sh. Pranab Mukherjee
(C) Sh. P. Chidambaram
(D) Sh. A.K. Anthony
Ans : (C)

14. Which one of the following has been appointed as the Secretary of State by Barack Obama, President of U.S.A. ?
(A) Hillary Clinton
(B) Joe Biden
(C) Condoleezza Rice
(D) Ben Porritt
Ans : (A)

15. Name the winner of the Sanjay Chopra National Award for Bravery 2008—
(A) Saumika Mishra
(B) Santosh Sen
(C) Amit Kumar
(D) Pappu
Ans : (A)

16. The Dadasaheb Phalke Award for 2006 was awarded by the President of India to—
(A) Tapan Sinha
(B) Madhur Bhandarkar
(C) Dilip Kumar
(D) Lata Mangeshkar
Ans : (A)

17. The concept of the Directive Principles of State Policy was borrowed by our Constitution from the Constitution of—
(A) U.S.A.
(B) Canada
(C) U.S.S.R.
(D) Ireland
Ans : (D)

18. 'Jeevan Aastha'—a scheme relating to investment and saving, was launched during 2008-09, by—
(A) Tata AIG
(B) ICICI Prudential
(C) Bajaj Allianz
(D) LIC
Ans : (D)

19. The three medals that Indians won in the Beijing Olympics were in—
(A) Shooting, Boxing and Wrestling
(B) Shooting, Boxing and Archery
(C) Shooting, Wrestling and Tennis
(D) Shooting, Boxing and Hockey
Ans : (A)

20. ATM stands for—
(A) Automatic Teller Machine
(B) Automated Teller Machine
(C) Automatic Tally Machine
(D) Automated Tally Mechanism
Ans : (A)

21. There is no provision in the Constitution for the impeachment of the—
(A) Chief Justice of India
(B) Chief Justice of a High Court
(C) Governor
(D) Vice President
Ans : (C)

22. Only one of the following can be the ex-officio Chairman of the Planning Commission. He is the—
(A) Minister for Planning and Development
(B) Home Minister
(C) Prime Minister
(D) Finance Minister
Ans : (C)

23. The train service—'Thar Express' between India and Pakistan, originates in India from—
(A) Jaisalmer
(B) Jodhpur
(C) Bikaner
(D) Barmer
Ans : (D)

24. Which one of the following cricketers has been awarded the Rajiv Gandhi Khel Ratna Award for the year 2007 ?
(A) Sachin Tendulkar
(B) Saurav Ganguly
(C) M.S. Dhoni
(D) Virender Sehwag
Ans : (C)

25. Garba is a dance form of—
(A) Gujarat
(B) Rajasthan
(C) Orissa
(D) Assam
Ans : (A)

26. Which one of the following countries has become the world leader in the carbon credit business in 2007 ?
(A) India
(B) Brazil
(C) Mexico
(D) China
Ans : (D)

27. Who is named as the Flying Sikh of India ?
(A) Mohinder Singh
(B) Ajit Pal Singh
(C) Joginder Singh
(D) Milkha Singh
Ans : (D)

28. Find the odd one (with reference of 26th January 2009 awards).
(A) Mahendra Singh Dhoni
(B) Harbhajan Singh
(C) Pankaj Advani
(D) Abhinav Bindra
Ans : (B)

29. Fundamental Rights are not given to—
(A) Bankrupt persons
(B) Aliens
(C) Persons suffering from incurable disease
(D) Political sufferers
Ans : (B)

30. Which is the lowest layer of the atmosphere ?
(A) Troposphere
(B) Stratosphere
(C) Mesosphere
(D) Thermosphere
Ans : (A)

31. Which of the following, according to Mahatma Gandhi, is the strongest force in the world ?
(A) Non-violence of the brave
(B) Non-violence of the weak
(C) Non-violence of the coward
(D) Non-violence of the downtrodden
Ans : (A)

32. Why was the name of Kuber Singh, a 17-year old student of G.D. Goenka World School, in the news on 20th January 2009 ?
(A) He was declared as the winner of the Sanjay Chopra Award
(B) He broke the record for fastest memorising of a 9 digit number
(C) He witnessed the Swearingin-Ceremony of President Barack Obama of USA, as an official invitee
(D) He solved the crossword puzzle of the famous USA magazine
Ans : (C)

33. What is the tenure of the Prime Minister of India ?
(A) Conterminous with the tenure of the Lok Sabha
(B) Conterminous with the tenure of the President
(C) As long as he enjoys the support of a majority in the Lok Sabha
(D) Five years
Ans : (C)

34. What was the reason for Gandhiji's support to decentralization of power ?
(A) Decentralisation ensures more participation of the people into democracy
(B) India had decentralisation of power in the past
(C) Decentralisation was essential for the economic development of the country
(D) Decentralisation can prevent communalism
Ans : (C)

35. Consent of the people means consent of—
(A) A few people
(B) All people
(C) Majority of the people
(D) Leader of the people
Ans : (C)

36. For how many categories has A. R. Rehman, the Golden Globe Award Winner for original sound track in the film 'Slum Dog Millionaire' been nominated at the Oscars ?
(A) 1
(B) 2
(C) 3
(D) 9
Ans : (C)

37. Which of the following is not a Panchayati Raj Institution ?
(A) Gram Sabha
(B) Gram Panchayat
(C) Gram Cooperative Society
(D) Nyaya Panchayat
Ans : (C)

38. Who among the following were members of the Swaraj Party ?
1. Motilal Nehru
2. Sardar Patel
3. Gopal Krishna Gokhale
(A) 1 and 2
(B) 1 only
(C) 2 and 3
(D) 1, 2 and 3
Ans : (B)

39. Match the following—
Union Territory
(a) Puducherry
(b) Andaman and Nicobar Islands
(c) Lakshadweep
(d) Daman and Diu
Jurisdiction (High Court)
1. Kerala
2. Bombay
3. Madras
4. Calcutta
(a) (b) (c) (d)
(A) 3 4 1 2
(B) 1 3 4 2
(C) 1 2 3 4
(D) 1 4 3 2
Ans : (A)

40. Which of the following is an extra-constitutional and nonstatutory body ?
(A) Finance Commission
(B) Planning Commission
(C) Union Public Service Commission
(D) Election Commission
Ans : (B)

41. Which of the following is true regarding 'No Confidence Motion' in the Parliament ?
1. There is no mention of it in the Constitution.
2. A period of six months must lapse between the introduction of one 'No Confidence Motion' and another.
3. Atleast 100 persons must support such a motion before it is introduced in the House.
4. It can be introduced in the Lok Sabha only.
(A) 2 and 4
(B) 1, 2, 3 and 4
(C) 1, 2 and 3
(D) 1 and 4
Ans : (D)

42. Deep fried food materials are carcinogenic because they are rich in—
(A) Fats
(B) Hydrocarbons
(C) Cooking oil
(D) Nicotine
Ans : (A)

43. The toxicity of which of the following heavy metals leads to liver cirrhosis ?
(A) Copper
(B) Lead
(C) Mercury
(D) Zinc
Ans : (A)

44. If the radius of blood vessels of a person decreases his/her blood pressure will—
(A) increase
(B) decrease
(C) remain unaffected
(D) increase for males and decrease for females
Ans : (A)

45. Cell or tissue death within a living body is called as—
(A) Neutrophilia
(B) Nephrosis
(C) Necrosis
(D) Neoplasia
Ans : (A)

46. Insufficient blood supply in human body is referred as—
(A) Ischemia
(B) Hyperemia
(C) Hemostasis
(D) Hemorrhage
Ans : (A)

47. Typhoid is caused by—
(A) Pseudomonas sp.
(B) Staphylococcus
(C) Bacillus
(D) Salmonella typhi
Ans : (D)

48. BCG immunization is for—
(A) Measles
(B) Tuberculosis
(C) Diphtheria
(D) Leprosy
Ans : (B)

49. Besides carbohydrates, a major source of energy in our food is constituted by—
(A) Proteins
(B) Fats
(C) Minerals
(D) Vitamins
Ans : (B)

50. The limb bones of children become bent if there is deficiency of vitamin—
(A) A
(B) B1
(C) D
(D) E
Ans : (C)

51. The process of removing calcium and magnesium from hard water is known as—
(A) Sedimentation
(B) Filtration
(C) Flocculation
(D) Water softening
Ans : (D)

52. Major gaseous pollutant of the thermal power station is—
(A) H2S
(B) NH3
(C) NO2
(D) SO2
Ans : (D)

53. Leprosy bacillus was discovered by—
(A) Koch
(B) Hansen
(C) Fleming
(D) Harvey
Ans : (B)

54. Where are the traces of Portuguese culture found in India ?
(A) Goa
(B) Calicut
(C) Cannanore
(D) Cochin
Ans : (B)

55. Who, of the following, was awarded 'Ashok Chakra' on 26th January, 2009 ?
1. Hemant Karkare
2. M. C. Sharma
3. Gajendra Singh
4. Vijay Salaskar
(A) 1 and 2
(B) 1, 2 and 4
(C) 1, 2 and 3
(D) All the above
Ans : (D)

56. Who laid the wreath at the 'Amar Jawan Jyoti' (India Gate) on 26th January 2009 ?
(A) Prime Minister
(B) Defence Minister
(C) Home Minister
(D) Minister for External Affairs
Ans : (B)

57. The British introduced the railways in India in order to—
(A) Promote heavy industries in India
(B) Facilitate British commerce and administrative control
(C) Move foodstuff in case of famine
(D) Enable Indians to move freely within the country
Ans : (B)

58. According to Dadabhai Naoroji 'Swaraj' meant—
(A) Complete independence
(B) Self government
(C) Economic independence
(D) Political independence
Ans : (C)

59. Which religious reformer of Western India was known as 'Lokhitwadi' ?
(A) Gopal Hari Deshmukh
(B) R. G. Bhandarkar
(C) Mahadev Govind Ranade
(D) B. G. Tilak
Ans : (A)

60. Which event brought about a profound change in Ashoka's administrative policy ?
(A) The third Buddhist Council
(B) The Kalinga War
(C) His embracing of Buddhism
(D) His sending of missionary to Ceylon
Ans : (B)

61. In which of the following states was President's Rule imposed during the month of January, 2009 ?
(A) Uttarakhand
(B) Meghalaya
(C) Mizoram
(D) Jharkhand
Ans : (D)

62. Who was the first Governor-General of Bengal ?
(A) Robert Clive
(B) Warren Hastings
(C) William Bentinck
(D) Cornwallis
Ans : (B)

63. In which state was the Nalanda University located in India ?
(A) Bengal
(B) Bihar
(C) Orissa
(D) Uttar Pradesh
Ans : (B)

64. Match the following—
List-I
(a) Tughlaqabad Fort
(b) Red Fort (at Delhi)
(c) Hauz Khas
(d) The City of Siri
List-II
1. Alauddin Khilji
2. Shah Jahan
3. Firoz Shah Tughlaq
4. Ghiyas-ud-din Tughlaq
(a) (b) (c) (d)
(A) 1 2 3 4
(B) 4 2 3 1
(C) 4 3 2 1
(D) 3 1 4 2
Ans : (B)

65. Which of the following are correctly matched ?
Persons—Events
1. Sultan Mahmud—Sack of Somnath
2. Muhammad Ghori—Conquest of Sindh
3. Alauddin Khilji—Revolt in Bengal
4. Muhammad Bin Tughlaq—Changiz Khan's invasion
(A) 1 and 3
(B) 2 only
(C) 1 only
(D) 2 and 4
Ans : ()

66. Which of the undermentioned facts about Taj Mahal is not correct ?
(A) It is a magnificent mausoleum
(B) It was built by Shah Jahan
(C) It is situated outside Agra Fort
(D) The names of artisans who built it are engraved on it
Ans : (D)

67. Where did Babar die ?
(A) Agra
(B) Kabul
(C) Lahore
(D) Delhi
Ans : (A)

68. The present Indian monetary system is based on—
(A) Gold Reserve System
(B) Proportional Reserve System
(C) Convertible Currency System
(D) Minimum Reserve System
Ans : (D)

69. A situation where we have people whose level of income is not sufficient to meet the minimum consumption expenditure is considered as—
(A) Absolute Poverty
(B) Relative Poverty
(C) Urban Poverty
(D) Rural Poverty
Ans : (A)

70. Full convertibility of a rupee means—
(A) Purchase of foreign exchange for rupees freely
(B) Payment for imports in terms of rupees
(C) Repayment of loans in terms of rupees
(D) Determination of rate of exchange between rupee and foreign currencies freely by the market forces of demand and supply
Ans : (D)

71. India is called a mixed economy because of the existence of—
1. Public Sector
2. Private Sector
3. Joint Sector
4. Cooperative Sector
(A) 1, 4
(B) 1, 2
(C) 3, 4
(D) 2, 4
Ans : (B)

72. The term stagflation refers to a situation where—
(A) Growth has no relation with the change in prices
(B) Rate of growth and prices both are decreasing
(C) Rate of growth is faster than the rate of price increase
(D) Rate of growth is slower than the rate of price increase
Ans : (D)

73. Which is the largest state of India, populationwise, according to 2001 census ?
(A) Maharashtra
(B) Bihar
(C) Uttar Pradesh
(D) West Bengal
Ans : (C)

74. The term 'Green Revolution' has been used to indicate higher production through—
(A) Creation of grasslands
(B) Planting more trees
(C) Enhanced agricultural productivity per hectare
(D) Creation of gardens in urban areas
Ans : (C)

75. Revealed Preference Theory was propounded by—
(A) Adam Smith
(B) Marshall
(C) P. A. Samuelson
(D) J. S. Mill
Ans : (C)

76. Gross Domestic Product is defined as the value of all—
(A) Goods produced in an economy in a year
(B) Goods and services produced in an economy in a year
(C) Final goods produced in an economy in a year
(D) Final goods and services produced in an economy in a year
Ans : (D)

77. An exceptional demand curve is one that moves—
(A) Upward to the right
(B) Downward to the right
(C) Horizontally
(D) Vertically
Ans : (A)

78. Production function explains the relationship between—
(A) Initial inputs and ultimate output
(B) Inputs and ultimate consumption
(C) Output and consumption
(D) Output and exports
Ans : (A)

79. Who has been appointed the Governor of RBI after the retirement of Shri Y. V. Reddy ?
(A) Dr. Indra Rangarajan
(B) Dr. Dilip Sanghvi
(C) Dr. Vijay L. Kelkar
(D) Shri D. Subbarao
Ans : (D)

80. The Draft of the Five Year Plans in India is approved by the—
(A) National Development Council
(B) Planning Commission
(C) National Productivity Council
(D) Ministry of Finance
Ans : (A)

81. In Economics the terms 'Utility' and 'Usefulness' have—
(A) Same meaning
(B) Different meaning
(C) Opposite meaning
(D) None of the above
Ans : (B)

82. Nature of unemployment in agriculture in India is—
(A) Only seasonal
(B) Only disguised
(C) Both (A) and (B)
(D) None of the above
Ans : (C)

83. Among the following the celestial body farthest from the Earth is—
(A) Saturn
(B) Uranus
(C) Neptune
(D) Pluto
Ans : (D)

84. A soap bubble shows colours when illuminated with white light. This is due to—
(A) Diffraction
(B) Polarisation
(C) Interference
(D) Reflection
Ans : (C)

85. The instrument used to see the distant objects on the Earth is—
(A) Terrestrial telescope
(B) Astronomical telescope
(C) Compound microscope
(D) Simple microscope
Ans : (A)

86. A person is hurt on kicking a stone due to—
(A) Inertia
(B) Velocity
(C) Reaction
(D) Momentum
Ans : (C)

87. The fuse in our domestic electric circuit melts when there is a high rise in—
(A) Inductance
(B) Current
(C) Resistance
(D) Capacitance
Ans : (B)

88. Which of the following is an example for cantilever beam ?
(A) Diving board
(B) Bridge
(C) See-saw
(D) Common balance
Ans : (A)

89. It is difficult to cook rice—
(A) At the top of a mountain
(B) At the sea level
(C) Under a mine
(D) Same anywhere
Ans : (A)

90. A dynamo is a device which—
(A) creates mechanical energy
(B) creates electrical energy
(C) Converts mechanical energy into electrical energy
(D) Converts electrical energy into mechanical energy
Ans : (C)

91. X-rays were discovered by—
(A) Becquerel
(B) Roentgen
(C) Marie Curie
(D) Van Lue
Ans : (B)

92. Which of the following substance is highly plastic ?
(A) Quartz
(B) Mica
(C) Granite
(D) Clay
Ans : (D)

93. The National Chemical Laboratory (India) is located in—
(A) Mumbai
(B) Bengaluru
(C) Hyderabad
(D) Pune
Ans : (D)

94. A medicine which promotes the secretion of urine is called—
(A) Adrenaline
(B) Monouretic
(C) Diuretic
(D) Triuretic
Ans : (C)

95. The chemicals released by one species of animals in order to attract the other members of the same species are—
(A) Hormones
(B) Nucleic acids
(C) Pheromones
(D) Steroids
Ans : (C)

96. The tip of the match-stick contains—
(A) Phosphorus pentoxide
(B) White phosphorus
(C) Red phosphorus
(D) Phosphorus trichloride
Ans : (C)

97. Match the source in Column B with the product of Column A.
Column A (Product)
(a) Formic acid
(b) Citric acid
(c) Tartaric acid
Column B (Source)
1. Lemon
2. Tamarind
3. Ants
(a) (b) (c)
(A) 3 2 1
(B) 3 1 2
(C) 2 3 1
(D) 2 1 3
Ans : (B)

98. Commercially, sodium bicarbonate is known as—
(A) Washing soda
(B) Baking soda
(C) Bleaching powder
(D) Soda ash
Ans : (B)

99. An emulsifier is an agent which—

(A) Stabilises an emulsion
(B) Aids the flocculation of an emulsion
(C) Accelerates the dispersion
(D) Homogenises an emulsion
Ans : (A)

100. Mortar is a mixture of water, sand and—
(A) Slaked lime
(B) Quick lime
(C) Limestone
(D) Gypsum
Ans : (A)

Rajasthan Public Service Commission [RAS/RTS] (Pre.) Examination, 2007 Solved Paper

Rajasthan Public Service Commission [RAS/RTS] (Pre.) Examination, 2007 Solved Paper

  1. The Sikh Kingdom of Punjab was annexed by the English East India Company inâ€"
(A) 1836 (B) 1839
(C) 1849 (D) 1852

2. The Kol Uprising of 1831 started inâ€"
(A) Gujarat
(B) Bengal
(C) Rajputana
(D) Chota Nagpur

3. Who led the Revolt of the Bareilly troops in 1857 ?
(A) Kunwar Singh
(B) Bakht Khan
(C) Azimullah
(D) Maulvi Ahmadullah

4. Who among the following leaders of the Revolt of 1857 declared himself to be the Governor of Bahadur Shah ?
(A) Nana Sahib
(B) Tantia Tope
(C) Kunwar Singh
(D) Bakht Khan

5. The first Indian Factories’ Act was passed inâ€"
(A) 1881 (B) 1885
(C) 1891 (D) 1894

6. Which of the following was not a consequence of the British Land Revenue Policy in India ?
(A) Increasing impoverishment of the peasants
(B) Growing peasant indebted-ness
(C) The spread of landlordism
(D) The ruin of artisan indus-tries

7. The Archaeological Survey of India was set up during the Viceroyalty ofâ€"
(A) Lord Lytton
(B) Lord Ripon
(C) Lord Dufferin
(D) Lord Curzon

8. Who was known as ‘The Grand Old Man of India’ ?
(A) B.G. Tilak
(B) G.K. Gokhale
(C) Mahatma Gandhi
(D) Dadabhai Naoroji

9. The most important Pre-Con-gress Nationalist Organisation wasâ€"
(A) The Indian Association of Calcutta
(B) Poona Sarvajanik Sabha
(C) Bombay Presidency Asso-ciation
(D) The Madras Mahajan Sabha

10. Who among the following was a leader of Prarthana Samaj ?
(A) Gopal Hari Deshmukh
(B) Vasudeo Balwant Phadke
(C) R.G. Bhandarkar
(D) G.K. Gokhale

11. All India Women’s Conference was founded inâ€"
(A) 1922 (B) 1927
(C) 1929 (D) 1932

12. Who among the following oppo-sed the Age of Consent Bill of 1891 ?
(A) Swami Dayanand
(B) Rabindranath Tagore
(C) Bal Gangadhar Tilak
(D) Surendranath Sen

13. The worst famine in India under the British rule occurred inâ€"
(A) 1860â€"61 (B) 1876â€"78
(C) 1896â€"97 (D) 1899â€"1900

14. The first textile mill was started in Bombay in the yearâ€"
(A) 1853 (B) 1855
(C) 1866 (D) 1879

15. Abhinava Bharat organised in 1904 wasâ€"
(A) a secret society of revolu-tionary activists
(B) a newspaper advocating revolutionary activities
(C) a cultural organisation
(D) a trade union movement

16. A newspaper Al Hilal was brought out in 1912 byâ€"
(A) Dr. M.A. Ansari
(B) Hakim Ajmal Khan
(C) Maulana Abul Kalam Azad
(D) Maulana Muhammad Ali

17. The cancellation of the partition of Bengal was announced inâ€"
(A) 1909 (B) 1911
(C) 1913 (D) 1916

18. Who criticised Indians for having lost touch with the rest of the World ?
(A) Raja Rammohan Roy
(B) Sayyed Ahmad Khan
(C) Vivekananda
(D) Swami Dayanand

19. All India Harijan Sangh was founded byâ€"
(A) B.R. Ambedkar
(B) Mahatma Gandhi
(C) Jotiba Phule
(D) B.M. Malabari

20. Who among the following was not a leader of militant nationa-lism ?
(A) Rajnarain Bose
(B) V.S. Chiplunkar
(C) Arbindo Ghosh
(D) Sasipada Bannerjee

21. Who among the following was the leader of Bihar Kisan Sabha ?
(A) Sahajanand Saraswati
(B) Baba Ramchandra
(C) Vijay Singh Pathik
(D) Shraddhanand

22. Who became the Vice-President of the Viceroy’s Council in the Interim Government of 1946-47 ?
(A) C. Rajagopalachari
(B) Dr. Rajendra Prasad
(C) Jawahar Lal Nehru
(D) M.A. Jinnah

23. Who among the following woman social reformers was called ‘Pandita’ ?
(A) Gangabai
(B) Ramabai
(C) Sister Subbalaksmi
(D) Annie Besant

24. Who was the leader of No Tax Campaign of the peasants orga-nised in 1928 ?
(A) S.A. Dange
(B) Baba Ramchandra
(C) Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel
(D) Subhash Chandra Bose

25. The Second Civil Disobedience Movement was started by Mahatma Gandhi inâ€"
(A) 1928 (B) 1930
(C) 1932 (D) 1934

26. An All India Strike by Postal and Telegraph Workers started inâ€"
(A) November, 1945
(B) February, 1946
(C) July, 1946
(D) August, 1946

27. Samhita isâ€"
(A) Collection of hymns
(B) Text on grammar
(C) Text on Ayurveda
(D) Forest treatises

28. Which of the following state-ments is not true about Rigvedic Aryans ?
(A) They lived in villages.
(B) They did not know gamb-ling.
(C) They practised polygamy.
(D) Family was the unit of social life.

29. Early Vedic society was organi-sed inâ€"
(A) Janas (B) Jati
(C) Rajanya (D) Sabha

30. Who was the author of Astadh-yayi ?
(A) Patanjali
(B) Panini
(C) Magha
(D) Visakhadatta

31. Which of the following metal was not used by the people of the Indus Civilization ?
(A) Iron (B) Bronze
(C) Gold (D) Silver

32. Which of the following Harap-pan sites is located in Gujarat ?
(A) Banawali
(B) Sanghol
(C) Mudiala Kalan
(D) Surkotada

33. The hallmark of Vedic religion and culture wasâ€"
(A) Dhyana
(B) Brahmacharya
(C) Puja
(D) Yajna

34. Under whose patronage was the Sangam literature composed ?
(A) Cholas (B) Cheras
(C) Pandyas (D) Chalukyas

35. What is the language of the Sangam literature ?
(A) Tamil (B) Pali
(C) Prakrit (D) Sanskrit

36. Which of the following ideas is not associated with Buddhism ?
(A) Sila (B) Prajna
(C) Pitru (D) Dhyana

37. The highest goal in Buddhism isâ€"
(A) Nirvana
(B) Madhyama Marga
(C) Vinaya
(D) Atmavad

38. The Third Buddhist Council was convened atâ€"
(A) Takshasila
(B) Sarnath
(C) Bodhgaya
(D) Pataliputra

39. Who among the following scho-lars wrote ‘History of Dharam Sastra’ ?
(A) D.P. Chattopadhyay
(B) P.V. Kane
(C) A.S. Altekar
(D) D.C. Sarkar

40. Who among the following argued that the Aryans came from Central Asia ?
(A) B.G. Tilak
(B) Brandenstein
(C) William Jones
(D) V.A. Smith

41. According to tradition, how many Sangam were held ?
(A) Two (B) Three
(C) Four (D) Five

42. Which of the following terms denotes a market centre ?
(A) Prasada (B) Nigama
(C) Grama (D) Nadi

43. Which of the following denotes a land revenue term ?
(A) Vivita (B) Bhaga
(C) Sulka (D) Kara

44. Which of the following officers according to Arthasastra was entrusted with the collection of revenue ?
(A) Sitadhyaksa
(B) Sansthadhyaksa
(C) Samahartta
(D) Sannidhata

45. Megasthenes divided Indian society intoâ€"
(A) Four groups
(B) Seven groups
(C) Eight groups
(D) Twelve groups

46. The Mauryan King Bindusara faced the rebellion of the people ofâ€"
(A) Kosala (B) Nalanda
(C) Kalinga (D) Takshasila

47. Which sect was initially called Nirgrantha ?
(A) Buddhist (B) Jaina
(C) Ajivika (D) Pashupata

48. Which of the following is regar-ded as the early Jaina Text ?
(A) Sutra Kritang
(B) Tripatika
(C) Mahavastu-Avdana
(D) Avdana Kalpalata

49. Which of the following is a Harappan port ?
(A) Alexandria
(B) Lothal
(C) Mahasthangarh
(D) Nagapattanam

50. The commonest term for peasan-try in early medieval North India isâ€"
(A) Kutumbin
(B) Bhogin
(C) Baddhahalika
(D) Swami

51. By Mauryan times the main sea-port of the Ganges basin wasâ€"
(A) Sopara
(B) Bhragukachchha
(C) Patala
(D) Tamralipti

52. Which of the following is not an Antyaja ?
(A) Chandala (B) Rajaka
(C) Nata (D) Yavana

53. Buddhism was introduced into Tibet fromâ€"
(A) The Pala Empire
(B) Harsha Vardhana’s State
(C) The Kushana State
(D) The Mauryan State

54. Which of the following state-ments is not true of Ashoka’s Dhamma ?
(A) There was a stress on non-violence
(B) Capital punishment was discontinued
(C) Donation to Brahmans was stressed
(D) There was a concern for master-servant relationship

55. Which of the following commo-dities was a major item of export trade in the Kusana period ?
(A) Cotton textiles
(B) Horse
(C) Gold
(D) Paper

56. Who among the following is described as a fabulously rich merchant in Buddhist Jatakas ?
(A) Vanik
(B) Sarthavaha
(C) Setthi
(D) Apanika

57. Alberuni’s account of India isâ€"
(A) Kitab-ul-Hind
(B) Chachnama
(C) Futuh-us-Salatin
(D) Tarikh-i-Yamini

58. Wali under the Sultans of Delhi wasâ€"
(A) Provincial Governor
(B) Head of Revenue Depart-ment
(C) Minister with full powers
(D) Head of the State news-agency

59. Amir Khusro describes the mili-tary campaigns of Jalal-ud-din Khalji in his workâ€"
(A) Nuh Sipihar
(B) Mifta-ul-Futuh
(C) Qiran-us Sadain
(D) Khazain-ul-Futuh

60. The most powerful Kings of Northern India in the 9th and 10th Centuries wereâ€"
(A) The Palas
(B) The Chahmanas
(C) The Rashtrakutas
(D) The Gurjara Pratiharas

61. Who declared that there were no slaves in India ?
(A) Kautilya (B) Megasthenes
(C) Patanjali (D) Fahien

62. The view that the Rajputs were descendents of the Vedic Aryans is expressed byâ€"
(A) James Tod
(B) Dashrath Sharma
(C) V.A. Smith
(D) C.V. Vaidya

63. Which Sultan replaced the system of measurement of land by crop sharing in the Khalisa areas ?
(A) Balban
(B) Ala-ud-din Khalji
(C) Ghiyas-ud-din Tughlaq
(D) Muhammad Tughlaq

64. Who among the following Vijay-anagara rulers bore the title of Gajabentakara ?
(A) Krishna Deva Raya
(B) Deva Raya II
(C) Deva Raya I
(D) Rama Raya

65. Which Vijayanagara ruler sent an embassy to China ?
(A) Harihara I
(B) Krishna Deva Raya
(C) Bukka I
(D) Saluva Narasimha

66. The Sultan Ghari was built as the mausoleum ofâ€"
(A) Qutab-ud-din Aibak
(B) Rukh-ud-din Firoj
(C) Nasir-ud-din Mahmud
(D) Kaikubad

67. The first Madrasa at Delhi namely “Madrasae Muizzâ€� was established byâ€"
(A) Qutub-ud-din Aibak
(B) Iltutmish
(C) Nasir-ud-din Mahmud
(D) Balban

68. Officer in-charge of royal household under the Sultans of Delhi was designatedâ€"
(A) Amir-i-hajib
(B) Wakil-i-dar
(C) Barid-i-mumalik
(D) Mustaufi-i-mumalik

69. The Chishti Saint who founded a branch of Chishti Silsilah in Gulbarga wasâ€"
(A) Shaikh Nasir-ud-din Chirag-i-Delhi
(B) Gesu Daraz
(C) Shaikh Hamid-ud-din Nagori
(D) Jalal-ud-din Tabrizi

70. Who among the following was not a Nirguni Bhakti Saint ?
(A) Shankardev (B) Raidas
(C) Dadu (D) Dhanna

71. Bhramar Geet were composed byâ€"
(A) Mirabai (B) Nabhadas
(C) Surdas (D) Haridas

72. Select the correct chronology of dynasties that ruled Vijayana-gara ?
(A) Sangama, Tuluva, Saluva, Aravidu
(B) Tuluva, Sangama, Saluva, Aravidu
(C) Aravidu, Sangama, Tuluva, Saluva
(D) Sangama, Saluva, Tuluva, Aravidu

73. The largest administrative divi-sion in Vijayanagara wasâ€"
(A) Kottam (B) Rajyam
(C) Kurram (D) Nadu

74. Pushti Marg was founded byâ€"
(A) Chaitanya
(B) Vallabhacharya
(C) Ramananda
(D) Nimbarka

75. Which of the following rulers of Bikaner was deposed by Jahan-gir ?
(A) Raja Rai Singh
(B) Raja Sur Singh
(C) Raja Dalpat Singh
(D) Raja Karan Singh

76. Who is the author of Safinat-ul-Aulia ?
(A) Shaikh Ahmad Sarhindi
(B) Mohsin Fani
(C) Dara Shukoh
(D) Jahandar Shah

77. Who made the Madad-i-maash grants completely hereditary ?
(A) Akbar
(B) Shahjahan
(C) Aurangzeb
(D) Bahadur Shah

78. The Ibadatkhana was closed in the yearâ€"
(A) 1579 (B) 1580
(C) 1582 (D) 1583

79. Who among the following Mughal Emperors made serious attempt to annex Trans-Oxiana ?
(A) Humayun
(B) Akbar
(C) Jahangir
(D) Shahjahan

80. Cultivation of tobacco was intro-duced in India during the reign ofâ€"
(A) Akbar
(B) Jahangir
(C) Shahjahan
(D) Aurangzeb

81. In 1585 Akbar shifted his capital toâ€"
(A) Kabul
(B) Lahore
(C) Fatehpur Sikri
(D) Multan

82. Nasaq during the Mughal Period wasâ€"
(A) A system of land revenue assessment
(B) A unit of measurement of land
(C) A Zamindari territory
(D) Revenue free land grant

83. Which of the following mosques is entirely made of marble ?
(A) Jama Masjid at Sikri
(B) Moti Masjid in the Agra Fort
(C) Qila-i-Kuhna Masjid in the Purana Qila of Delhi
(D) Jama Masjid of Delhi

84. Who among the following is the first comprehensive historian of the Marathas ?
(A) M.G. Ranade
(B) G.S. Sardesai
(C) James Cuningham Grant Duff
(D) C.A. Kincaid

85. Who among the following rulers patronized musician Lal Khan Gun Samudra ?
(A) Hussain Shah Sharqi
(B) Islam Shah Sur
(C) Ibrahim Adil Shah II
(D) Shahjahan

86. Dastan-i-Amir-i-Hamza was illu-strated during the reign ofâ€"
(A) Humayun
(B) Akbar
(C) Jahangir
(D) Shahjahan

87. The English East India Company obtained the lease of Madras inâ€"
(A) 1611 (B) 1623
(C) 1639 (D) 1646

88. Who among the following was imprisoned by the Mughal Emp-eror Jahangir ?
(A) Gosain Jadrup
(B) Miyan Mir
(C) Guru Ramdas
(D) Shaikh Ahmad Sarhindi

89. In 1739 the Portuguese lost their possessions of Salsette and Bas-sein toâ€"
(A) The Dutch
(B) The English
(C) The Mughals
(D) The Marathas

90. Lohgarh Fort was built byâ€"
(A) Guru Hargovind
(B) Guru Teg Bahadur
(C) Guru Govind Singh
(D) Banda Bahadur

91. In 1585-86 the only Rajput who held the mansab of 5000 wasâ€"
(A) Raja Bhagwant Das
(B) Raja Raisingh of Bikaner
(C) Raja Man Singh
(D) Rai Surjan Hada

92. Who introduced the Mughal land revenue system in the Deccan ?
(A) Mahabat Khan
(B) Mirza Raja Jaisingh
(C) Diler Khan
(D) Murshid Kuli Khan

93. Which one of the following acco-rding to Bernier was the owner of land in India ?
(A) The Zamindar
(B) The King
(C) The Khud Kashta
(D) The Village Community

94. Haidar Ali established his autho-rity over the State of Mysore inâ€"
(A) 1755 (B) 1761
(C) 1764 (D) 1766

95. In 1751 the Nawab of Bengal ceded Orissa toâ€"
(A) The English East India Company
(B) The Nawab of Avadh
(C) The Marathas
(D) The Afghans

96. Which Peshwa started a long campaign against the sidis of Janjira ?
(A) Balaji Vishwanath
(B) Baji Rao I
(C) Balaji Baji Rao
(D) Madhav Rao

97. Who was the founder of the Widow Remarriage Association in the 19th century ?
(A) Raja Rammohan Roy
(B) Vishnu Shastri Pandit
(C) Ramabai
(D) Gopal Hari Deshmukh

98. Shahu was granted the Chauth and Sardeshmukhi of the Deccan during the reign ofâ€"
(A) Bahadur Shah
(B) Jahandar Shah
(C) Farrukh Siyar
(D) Muhammad Shah

99. Farrukh Siyar was deposed and killed byâ€"
(A) Zulfiqar Khan
(B) Jahandar Shah
(C) The Sayyed Brothers
(D) Saadat Khan

100. The founder of the autonomous kingdom of Avadh wasâ€"
(A) Saadat Khan Burhan-ul-Mulk
(B) Safdar Jang
(C) Murshid Kuli Khan
(D) Hussain Kuli Khan

Answers with Explanations :1. (C) 2. (D)
3.
(All the four options of the question are not correct.)
Khan Bahadur Khan, the successor of the former ruler (Nawab) of Rohilkhand, led the Revolt of the Bareilly troops in 1857.
4. (All the four options of the question are not correct.)
Khan Bahadur Khan of Bareilly, declared himself to be the Governor (Nazim) of Bahadur Shah.
Nana Sahib declared himself as Peshwa, Kunwar Singh was a Zamindar of Bihar, Tantia Tope was the army-chief of Nana Sahib and Bakht Khan was the army-chief of Bahadur Shah.
5. (A) 6. (D) 7. (D) 8. (D) 9. (A)
10. (C)
11. (B)
The All India Women’s Con-ference (AIWC), one of the oldest voluntary organization in the country was founded in 1927 by Margaret Cousins, an Irish Lady, who had made India her home. AIWC original concern was women’s education but grad-ually it took up various social and economic issues concerning women, such as Purdah, Child Marriage, Traf-ficking, Women’s Property Right etc.
Today, AIWC has over 1,00,000 members in 500 branches all over country. It is recognized as a premier organization working for Women’s Development and Empowerment.
12. (C) 13. (B) 14. (A) 15. (A)
16. (C)
The Al-Hilal was a news-paper established by Indian leader Maulana Abul Kalam Azad and used as a medium for criticism of the British Raj in India. The newspaper also espoused the cause of the Indian independence movement and exhorted Indian Muslims to join the movement. The newspaper was shut down under the Press Act of 1914.
17. (B) 18. (C) 19. (B) 20. (A) 21. (A)
22. (C) 23. (B) 24. (C) 25. (C) 26. (B)
27. (A) 28. (B) 29. (A)
30. (B)
Panini was an ancient Indian grammarian from Gandhara. He is known for his Sanskrit gram-mar, particularly for his formula-tion of the 3,959 rules of Sanskrit morphology in the grammar known as Ashtadhyayi, the foundational text of the gram-matical branch of the vedanga, the auxiliary scholarly discipline of vedic religion. The Ashtadh-yayi is the earliest known gram-mar of Sanskrit, and the earliest known work on descriptive ling-uistics, generative linguistics, and together with the work of his immediate predecessors stands at the beginning of the history of linguistics itself.
31. (A)
32. (D)
Surkotada is an archaeolo-gical site located in India. It is famous for horse remains dated to ca. 2008 BCE. The site at Surkotada is located 160 km north east of Bhuj, in the District of Kutch, Gujarat.
33. (D) 34. (C) 35. (A) 36. (C) 37. (A)
38. (D)
The third Buddhist Council was convenced in about 250 BCE at Asokarama in Patilputra, under the patronage of Emperor Asoka. The reason for convening the third Buddhist Council is reported to have been to red the sangha of corruption and bogus monks who held heretical views. It was presided over by the Elder Moggaliutta Tissa and one thou-sand monks participated in the Council.
39. (B)
History of Dharmasastra, with subtitle Ancient and Medie-val Religious and Civil Law in India, is a monumental five-volume work consisting of around 6,500 pages, and was written by Dr. Pandurang Vaman Kane, an indologist. The first volume of the work was publi-shed in 1930 and the last one in 1962. The work is considered as Dr. Kane’s Magnum opus in English.
40. (B) 41. (D) 42. (B) 43. (B) 44. (C)
45. (B) 46. (D) 47. (B) 48. (A) 49. (B)
50. (A) 51. (D) 52. (D) 53. (A) 54. (B)
55. (A) 56. (C) 57. (A) 58. (A) 59. (B)
60. (D) 61. (B) 62. (D) 63. (C) 64. (B)
65. (C) 66. (C) 67. (B) 68. (B) 69. (B)
70. (A) 71. (C) 72. (D) 73. (B) 74. (B)
75. (A) 76. (C) 77. (D) 78. (C) 79. (D)
80. (B) 81. (B)
82. (A)
Nasaqâ€"A subordinate met-hod of revenue assessment which could be used under some major method of assessment. In this method, the revenue was asses-sed on the basis of the previous figures of assessment.
83. (B) 84. (C) 85. (D) 86. (B) 87. (C)
88. (D) 89. (D) 90. (C) 91. (C) 92. (D)
93. (B)
94. (B)
Haider Ali, born in 1721 in an obscure family, started his career as a petty officer in the Mysore Army. Though uneducated, he possessed a keen intellect and was a man of great energy, daring and determination. Haider Ali soon found his opportunity in the wars which in valved Mysore for more than twenty years. He established a Modern arsenal in Dindigal in 1755 with the help of French experts. In 1761 he overthrew Nanjaraj and established his authority over the Mysore state.
95. (C)
96. (B)
Baji Rao I was a bold and brilliant commander and an ambitious and clever statesman. He has been described as the greatest exponent of Guerrila tactics after Shivaji hed by Baji Rao, the Marathas waged nume-rous campaigns against the Mughal Empire. In 1733, Baji Rao started a long campaign against the sidis of Janjira and in the end expelled them from the main-land.
97. (B)
98. (C)
99. (C)
Farrukh Siyar owed his victory to the Sayyed brothers. Abdullah Khan and Hussain Ali Khan Barahow who were there-fore given the offices of Wazir and Mir Bakshi respectively. The two brothers soon acquired domi-nant control over the affairs of the state. Farrukh Siyar lacked the capacity of rule. He was cowardly, cruel, undependable and faithless. In 1719, Farrukh Siyar was deposed and killed by Sayyed brothers.
100. (A) The Subah of Avadh, exten-ding from Kannauj district in the west to the river Karmanasa in the east, was a large and pros-perous region. It became virtually independent in 1722 when a Persian Shia adventurer named Saadat Khan was appointed its governor by Muhammad Shah.

GK-->The First Indian

Actress of the Talkies
Zubeida, Alam Ara(1931)
.
Actress to win Padma Shri Award
Nargis Dutt(1958)
.
Architect
Maha Govinda(5th C.BC)
.
Aryabhatta Medal Winner
K.R. Ramanathan(1977)
.
Bharat Ratna Award Winner
C.Rajgopalachari( 1954)
.
British Governor General of Indian Union
Lord Louis Mountbatten( Aug. 15, 1947-June 20, 1948)
.
Captain of Test Cricket
C.K.Nayudu(1932)
.
Century in Test Cricket
Lala Amarnath(1933- 1934)
.
Chairman of Rajaya Sabha
S.V.Krishnamoorthy( 1952)
.
Chevalier Award Winner
Sivaji Ganesan
.
Chief Election Commissioner
Sukumar Sen(1950-1958)
.
Chief Justice of India
Hiralal J.Kania(1950- 1951)
.
Chief of Air Staff
Sir Thomas Elmhirst(1947- 1950)
.
Chief of Army Staff to die in harness
B.C.Joshi(1994)
.
Chief of Coast Guard
V.A.Kamath(1978- 1980)
.
Chief of Naval Staff
R.D.Katari(1958- 1962)
.
Commander-in- Chief
K.M.Cariappa( 1949-1953)
.
Cosmonaut
Rakesh Sharma(1984)
.
Cricketer to have battled in all positions(1 to 11)
Vinoo Mankad
.
Dada Saheb Phalke Award Winner
Devika Rani Roerich(1969)
.
Dancer to perform abroad
Uday Shankar
.
Deputy Prime Minister
Vallabhbhai Patel(1947-1950)
.
Deputy Prime Minister to die in harness
Vallabhbhai Patel(1950)
.
Elected President
S.Radhakrishnan( 1962-1967)
.
Emperor of Mughal Dynasty
Babar(1526-1530)
.
Field Marshal
S.H.F.J.Manekshaw( 1973)
.
Film Star Chief Minister
M.G.Ramachandran( Tamil Nadu, 1977)
.
Financial Minister to present the Budget three times in a row
Manmohan Singh (1933, 1994, 1995)
.
Finix Award Winner
Sr.P.C.Sorcar
.
Geometer
Baudhayana, Sulva Sutras(800 BC)
.
Governor General of British India
Warren Hastings(1774- 1785)
.
Grammarian
Panini, Ashtadhyaayi( 6th C. BC)
.
Helms Award Winner
Kunwar Digvijay Singh Babu(1952)
.
Home Minister
Vallabhbhai Patel(1946)
.
ICS Officer
Satyendranath Tagore
.
Indian Chief of Air Staff
S.Mukherjee( 1954-1960)
.
Indian Governor General of Indian Union
M.Rajendra Singh(April 1, 1955-May 14, 1955)
.
Indian Woman President of Indian National Congress
Sarojini Naidu(1925)
.
J.C.Bose Medal Winner
V.Ramalingaswami( 1977)
.
Jain Tithankara
Rishabha Dev
.
Jananpith Award Winner
G.Sankara Kurup, Odakuzhal(1965)
.
Lady of the Indian Film
Devika Rani Roerich
.
Lata Mangeshkar Award Winner
Naushad(1984)
.
Lawgiver
Manu, Manu Smirti(3100 BC)
.
Man to climb Mount Everest without oxygen
Phu Dorjee(1984)
.
Man to climb Mount Everest
Tanzing Norgay(with Edumund Hillary, 1953)
.
Man to make solo Flight(from US to India)
Satish Soman(1994)
.
Man to swim across English Channel
Mihir Sen(1966)
.
Man to swim several Straits in one calender year
Mihir Sen(1966)
.
Managing Director of World Bank
Gautam Kaji(1995)
.
Member of British Parliament
Dadabhai Naoroji(1862)
.
Member of Viceroy's Executive Council
Sir S.P.Sinha(1909)
.
Miss Universe
Sushmita Sen(1994)
.
Miss World
Reita Faria(1966)
.
Musician to get Padma Bhushan and Padma Vibhushana
M.S.Subbulakshmi( 1954,1975)
.
Musician to get Ramon Magsaysay Award
M.S.Subbulakshami( 1974)
.
Naval Pilot
Y.N..Singh(1941)
.
Nishan-Eey-Pakistan Award Winner
Morarji Desai(1991)
.
Nobel Prize Winner
Rabindranath Tagore, Gitanjali(1913)
.
Olympic Medal Winner
Norman Pritchard, Silver(1900)
.
Oscar Winner
Bhanu Athaiya
.
Patricide
Ajatshatru's killing of Bimbisara(494 BC)
.
Physically handicapped mountaineer
Baba Manindra Pal
.
Pilot
J.R.D.Tata, Tata Airlines(1929)
.
Presentation of Budget
R.K.Shanmugham Chetty, Finance Minister(1947)
.
Presentation of General Budget
C.D.Deshmukh, Finance Minister(1952)
.
President
Rajendra Prasad(1950- 1962)
.
President of Indian National Congress
W.C.Bannerjee( 1885)
.
President of International Court of Justice
Nagendra Singh(1970)
.
President to die in harness
Zakir Hussain(1967- 1969)
.
Prime Minister
Jawaharlal Nehru(1947-1964)
.
Prime Minister to be assassinated
Indira Gandhi(1984)
.
Prime Minister to die in harness
Jawaharlal Nerhru(1964)
.
Prime Minister to head a minority government
Choudhary Charan Singh(July 28, 1979-Jan,14, 1980)
.
Prime Minister to resign from office
Morarji Desai(1979)
.
Prime Minister who did not face Parliament
Chaudhary Charan Singh(July 28, 1979-Jan 14, 1980)
.
Raman Medal Winner
Salim Moinuddin Ahmed Ali(1979)
.
Raman Magsaysay Award Winner
Vinoba Bhave(1958)
.
Recipient of Stalin Peace Prize
Saifuddin Kitchlew(1954)
.
Recipient of World Food Prize
M.S.Swaminathan( 1987)
.
S..Ramanujan Medal Winner
S.Chandrashekhar( 1962)
.
S.S.Bhatnagar Medal Winner
Atma Ram(1959)
.
Scientist
Uddalaka Aruni(560 BC)
.
Slave Ruler of India
Qutb-ud-din Aibak(1206-1210)
.
Speaker in Hindi at the UN
Atal Bihari Vajpayee(1977)
.
Speaker of Lok Sabha
Ganesh Vasudeo Mavalankar(1952- 1957)
.
Test-tube baby
Baby Harsha or Indira(1986)
.
Vice-President
S.Radhakrishnan( 1952-1962)
.
Viceroy of India
Lord Canning (1858-1862)
.
Woman (Muslim) Ruler of India
Razia Sultana(1236- 1240)
.
Woman Advocate
Cornelia Sorabji(1894)
.
Woman Ambassador
Vijayalakshmi Pandit(U.S.S. R., 1947-1949)
.
Woman at Antarctica
Meher Moos(1976)
.
Woman Central Minister
Rajkumari Amrit Kaur(Health)
.
Woman Chief Justice(of High Court)
Leila Seth(Himachal Pradesh, 1991)
.
Woman Chief Minister
Sucheta Kriplani(Uttar Pradesh, 1963-1967)
.
Woman Foreign Minister
Lakshmi N. Menon(1957-1966)
.
Woman Secretary General of Rajya Sabha
V.S.Rama Devi(1993)
.
Woman Governor
Sarojini Naidu(Uttar Pradesh, 1963-1967)
.
Woman IAS Officer
Anna Rajam George(1950)
.
Woman IPS Officer
Kiran Bedi(1974)
.
Woman Jet Commander
Saudamini Deshmukh
.
Woman Jnanpithpith Award Winner
Ashapurna Devi, Prathama Pratishruti( 1976)
.
Woman Judge of Supreme Court
Meera Sahib Fatima Beevi(1989)
.
Woman Minister of State
Vijayalakshmi Pandit(Uttar Pradesh, 1937)
.
Woman Missionary
Sanghamitra, daughter of King Ashoka (Sri Lanka, 3rd C.BC)
.
Woman Pilot (Commercial)
Prem Mathur(Deccan Airways, 1951)
.
Woman Pilot (Indian Airlines)
Durga Banerjee(1966- 1988)
.
Woman President of Indian National Congress
Annie Besant(1917)
.
Woman President of UN General Assembly
Vijayalakshmi Pandit(1953)
.
Woman Prime Minister
Indira Gandhi(1966- 1977, 1980-1984)
.
Woman Sahitya Akademi Award Winner
Amrita Pritam, Sunehre(1956)
.
Woman to climb Mount Everest
Bachendri Pal(1984)
.
Woman to perform a solo Flight
Harita Kaur Deol(1944)
.
Woman to swim across English Channel
Arati Saha(1959)
.
Woman to swim across the Strait of Gibraltar
Arti Pradhan
.
Woman to win an Asian Gold
Kamaljit Sandhu(1970)
.
Woman to go in Space
Dr.Kalpana Chawla(November 1997)

Wednesday, July 14, 2010

seminar topicspapers for presentation

seminar topics

papers for presentation

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verbal reasoning..........study online.......

R S aggarwal verbal reasoning.pdf
View  Download

Monday, July 12, 2010

PSLV launch successful, 5 satellites placed in orbit

PSLV launch successful, 5 satellites placed in orbit


2010-07-12 11:00:00
Last Updated: 2010-07-12 11:05:35

PSLV_200​

Sriharikota: In a textbook launch, India's Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle (PSLV) on Monday successfully placed into orbit remote sensing satellite Cartosat-2B and four other satellites after a perfect lift off from the spaceport here.

At the end of an over 51-hour countdown, the 44.4 metre-tall four-stage PSLV-C-15, costing Rs 260 crore, blasted off from a launch pad at the Satish Dhawan Space Centre with ignition of the core first stage and placed the satellites in orbit one after the other.

Visibly relieved scientists, headed by ISRO chairman Dr K Radhakrishnan, cheered as ISRO's workhorse PSLV soared into clear skies at 9.22 AM from the spaceport in the East Coast in Andhra Pradesh, about 100 km north of Chennai.

India hopes to launch 'Chandrayaan-2' by 2013

The PSLV launch assumes significance as it comes about three months after ISRO suffered a major setback on April 15 when the Geosynchronous Satellite Launch Vehicle (GSLV-D3), which was launched using an Indian-designed and built cryogenic engine for the first time, failed and fell into the Bay of Bengal.

Cartosat-2B is an advanced remote sensing satellite built by ISRO. This is the latest in the Indian remote sensing satellite series and the 17th in this series.

Cartosat-2B is mainly intended to augment remote sensing data services to the users of multiple spot scene imagery with 0.8 metre spatial resolution and 9.6 km swath in the panchromatic.

Cartosat-2 and 2A, two Indian remote sensing satellites in orbit, are currently providing such services.

A set of four satellites including Studsat built by students of seven engineering colleges in Andhra Pradesh and Karnataka, Alsat from Algeria, two nano satellites from Canada and Switzerland, and a pico (very small) satellite called Oceansat 2 accompanied Cartosat 2 on its trip to orbit.

Planning Commission Deputy Chairman Montek Singh Ahuluwalia, and former ISRO chief Dr K Kasturirangan witnessed the launch.

"It has been a wonderful experience. The ISRO has made the country proud," Ahluwalia said, congratulating the scientists after the perfect take off. 

Attributing the success of PSLV C-15 to the entire team behind the mission, ISRO chairman K Radhakrishnan said, "We had an excellent flight. It injected precisely the five satellites. The entire ISRO team is behind the success".

In an apparent reference to the failure of GSLV D3 cryogenic stage, the space agency's first mission after he took over as its chief, he said his team of scientists were inspired to work "especially after the last few weeks after a serious problem that we faced."

GSLV relaunch with indigenous cryogenic engine in one year

"And I also want to say we have understood the problem with regard to the indigenous cryogenic engine and stage. We will confirm it in a few weeks with a few tests and then we will come back", he said.

Sunday, July 11, 2010

Viceroys Of India........

Viceroys Of India

Lord Canning (1856 – 1862):
  • The last Governor General and the first Viceroy.
  • Mutiny took place in his time.
  • On Nov, 1858, the rule passed on to the crown.
  • Withdrew Doctrine of Lapse.
  • The Universities of Calcutta, Bombay and Madras were established in 1857.
  • Indian Councils Act was passed in 1861.
Lord Elgin (1862 – 1863)
Lord Lawrence (1864 – 1869):
  • Telegraphic communication was opened with Europe.
  • High Courts were established at Calcutta, Bombay and Madras in 1865.
  • Expanded canal works and railways.
  • Created the Indian Forest department.
Lord Mayo (1869 – 1872):
  • Started the process of financial decentralization in India.
  • Established the Rajkot college at Kathiarwar and Mayo College at Ajmer for the Indian princes.
  • For the first time in Indian history, a census was held in 1871.
  • Organised the Statistical Survey of India.
  • Was the only Viceroy to be murdered in office by a Pathan convict in the Andamans in 1872.
Lord Northbrook (1872 – 1876):
Lord Lytton (1876 – 1880):
  • Known as the Viceroy to reverse characters.
  • Organised the Grand 'Delhi Durbar' in 1877 to decorate Queen Victoria with the title of 'Kaiser – I – Hind'.
  • Arms Act(1878) made it mandatory for Indians to acquire license for arms.
  • Passed the infamous Vernacular Press Act (1878).
Lord Ripon (1880 – 1884):
  • Liberal person, who sympathized with Indians.
  • Repeated the Vernacular Press Act (1882)
  • Passed the local self – government Act (1882)
  • Took steps to improve primary & secondary education (on William Hunter Commission's recommendations).
  • The I Factory Act, 1881, aimed at prohibiting child labour.
  • Passed the libert Bill (1883) which enabled Indian district magistrates to try European criminals. But this was withdrawn later.
Lord Dufferin (1884 – 1888):
  • Indian National Congress was formed during his tenure.
Lord Lansdowne (1888 – 1894):
  • II Factory Act (1891) granted a weekly holiday and stipulated working hours for women and children, although it failed to address concerns such as work hours for men.
  • Categorization of Civil Services into Imperial, Provincial and Subordinate.
  • Indian Council Act of 1892 was passed.
  • Appointment of Durand Commission to define the line between British India and Afghanistan.
Lord Elgin II (1894 – 1899):
  • Great famine of 1896 – 1897. Lyall Commission was appointed.
Lord Curzon (1899 – 1905):
  • Passed the Indian Universities Act (1904) in which official control over the Universities was increased.
  • Partitioned Bengal (October 16, 1905) into two provinces 1, Bengal (proper), 2.East Bengal & Assam.
  • Appointed a Police Commission under Sir Andrew Frazer to enquire into the police administration of every province.
  • The risings of the frontier tribes in 1897 – 98 led him to create the North Western Frontier Province(NWFP).
  • Passed the Ancient Monuments Protection Act (1904), to restore India's cultural heritage. Thus the Archaeological Survey of India was established.
  • Passed the Indian Coinage and Paper Currency Act (1899) and put India on a gold standard.
  • Extended railways to a great extent.
Lord Minto (1905 – 1910):
  • There was great political unrest in India. Various acts were passed to curb the revolutionary activities. Extremists like Lala Laipat Rai and Ajit Singh (in May, 1907) and Bal Gangadhar Tilak (in July, 1908) were sent to Mandalay jail in Burma.
  • The Indian Council Act of 1909 or the Morley – Minto Reforms was passed.
Lord Hardinge (1910 – 1916):
  • Held a durbar in dec, 1911 to celebrate the coronation of King George V.
  • Partition of Bengal was cancelled (1911), capital shifted from Calcutta to Delhi (1911).
  • A bomb was thrown at him; but he escaped unhurt (Dec 23, 1912).
  • Gandhiji came back to India from S.Africa (1915).
  • Annie Besant announced the Home Rule Movement.
Lord Chelmsford (1916 – 1921):
  • August Declaration of 1917, whereby control over the Indian government would be gradually transferred to the Indian people.
  • The government of India Act in 1919 (Montague – Chelmsford reforms) was passed.
  • Rowlatt Act of 1919; Jallianwala Bagh Massacre (April 13, 1919).
  • Non – Cooperation Movement.
  • An Indian Sir S.P.Sinha was appointed the Governor of Bengal.
  • A Women's university was founded at Poona in 1916.
  • Saddler Commission was appointed in 1917 to envisage new educational policy.
Lord Reading (1921 – 1926):
  • Rowlatt act was repeated along with the Press act of 1910.
  • Suppressed non-cooperation movement.
  • Prince of Wales visited India in Nov.1921.
  • Moplah rebellion (1921) took place in Kerala.
  • Ahmedabad session of 1921.
  • Formation of Swaraj Party.
  • Vishwabharati University started functioning in 1922.
  • Communist part was founded in 1921 by M.N.Roy.
  • Kakory Train Robbery on Aug 9, 1925.
  • Communal riots of 1923 – 25 in Multan, Amritsar, Delhi, etc.
  • Swami Shraddhanand, a great nationalist and a leader of the Arya Samajists, was murdered in communal orgy.
Lord Irwin (1926 – 1931):
  • Simon Commission visited India in 1928.
  • Congress passed the Indian Resolution in 1929.
  • Dandi March (Mar 12, 1930).
  • Civil Disobedience Movement (1930).
  • First Round Table Conference held in England in 1930.
  • Gandhi – Irwin Pact (Mar 5, 1931) was signed and Civil Disobediance Movement was withdrawn.
  • Martydorm of Jatin Das after 64 days hunger strike (1929).
Lord Willington (1931 – 1936):
  • Second Round Table conference in London in 1931.
  • On his return Gandhiji was again arrested and Civil Disobedience Movement was resumed in Jan 1932.
  • Communal Awards (Aug 16, 1932) assigned seats to different religious communities. Gandhiji went on a epic fast in protest against this division.
  • Third Round Table conference in 1932.
  • Poona Pact was signed.
  • Government of India Act (1935) was passed.
Lord Linlithgow (1936 – 1944):
  • Govt. of India Act enforced in the provinces. Congress ministries formed in 8 out of 11 provinces. They remained in power for about 2 years till Oct 1939, when they gave up offices on the issue of India having been dragged into the II World War. The Muslim League observed the days as 'Deliverance Say' (22 December)
  • Churchill became the British PM in May, 1940. He declared that the Atlantic Charter (issued jointly by the UK and US, stating to give sovereign rights to those who have been forcibly deprived of them) does not apply to India.
  • Outbreak of World War II in 1939.
  • Cripps Mission in 1942.
  • Quit India Movement (August 8, 1942).
Lord Wavell (1944 – 1947):
  • Arranged the Shimla Conference on June 25, 1945 with Indian National Congress and Muslim League; failed.
  • Cabinet Mission Plan (May 16, 1946).
  • Elections to the constituent assembly were held and an Interim Govt. was appointed under Nehru.
  • First meeting of the constituent assembly was held on Dec. 9, 1946.
Lord Mountbatten (Mar.1947 – Aug.1947):
  • Last Viceroy of British India and the first Governor General of free India.
  • Partition of India decided by the June 3 Plan.
  • Indian Independence Act passed by the British parliament on July 4, 1947, by which India became independent on August 15, 1947.
  • Retried in June 1948 and was succeeded by C.Rajagopalachari (the first and the last Indian Governor General of free India).

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